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VoL XXIX. PUBLISHED MONTHLY. No. 8 



The Journal 



OF THE 



Ministry of Agriculture 

NOVEMBER, 1922. 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. 
(For Complete List of Contents see page uii.J page 

Sir Arthur Boscawen's Farewell Address to Farmers - 673 
The Possibility of Using Town Refuse as Manure. Sir John 

Russell, D.Sc, F.R.S. - _ - g§5 

The Clydesdale. A. MaeNeilaye 691 

Labour on the Farm. A. G. Huston, B.A., D.Sc, and J. S. Simpson, 

B.Sc. - 597 

Ground Mineral Phosphates as Manures. Professor d. a. 

Gilchrist .......... 7Qg 

The Planning and Construction of Farm Buildings : A 
Modern Homestead. Major H. r. G. Mauie, o.s.o., m.c, 

F.R.I. B. A. 710 

Possibilities of Fruit and Vegetable Growing in Durham 

and Cheshire. W. G. Lobjoit, J. P., o.B.E. .... 717 

The Potato Flour Industry in Holland. Tk. I. MatUsTwlt - 720 

A Safe Method of Preventing "Bunt" in Wheat. E. s. 

Salmon and II. Wormald 722 

The First Year's Working of the Seeds Act, 1920 - - 729 
Redemption of Tithe Rentcharge by Annuity - - - 733 
The Making of Clogs, Clog-Soles and Clog Blocks. Katharine 

S. Woods 733 

Food in Relation to Egg Production. E. J. Davey - . 745 
A New Apple Pest. J- 0. F. Fryer, M.A. - - - - 748 
A Local Investigation of the Food of the Little Owl. 

Walter E. Collinge, D.Sc, F.L.S. 759 

Manures for November. Sir John Russell, D.Sc, F.R.S. - - 752 
Feeding Stuffs for November. E. T. Hainan, m.a., Dip. 4gric. 

(Cantab.) - 755 




LONDON: 

riUNTED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OP HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 
AND PUBLISHED Bf TH* MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES. 

(To be obtained from the Ministry's Offices, 10, Whitehall Place, London, 8.W.I.) 



SDETCS.IAL AND MONTHLY. A&SLNTS YOB, ADVERTISEMENTS : 

pmxsHXXt omczs : roDinr impriiAc 1 C. VE&NON & SONS, Ltd., 

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THE JOURNAL OP THE MINISTRY OP AGRIOULTUKE. — Advertisements. 




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THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE. — Advertisements. 




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For sales and prices appli, to — 

The Alsace Lorraine Development 
and Trading Company, Limited 

(Sole Ajrent* for United Kiugdotn 
and colonies). 

Pinners Hall, Old Broad Street, E.C.2. 

For information and Publications re 
use of Potash apply to : 

The Agricultural Information 
Bureau for the French Potash 
Mines, Dashwood House, New 
Broad Street, London, E.C.2. 



AN EXCELLENT TOP 
DRESSING FOR GRASS 
LAND 

is French Kainit. 14°/ applied 
together with Basic Slag or 
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The Combined Dressing tells 
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AUTUMN SOWN CROPS 

Always derive gTeat henefit from Potash 
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(The Rich Sylvinites) Muriafee of Potash 
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35, GREAT ST. HELENS, LONDON, E.C.3. 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE.— Advertisements. 



Build Substantial and Attractive Buildings 

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will be cool in summer and dry in winter. Whether you wish to build a new 
villa or just a silo, there is no better way than the Cyclops way. 

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THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE. — Advertisements. 



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South Metropolitan Gas Company, 

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THE JOUENAL OF THE MINISTEY OF AGKICULTUEE. — Advertisements. 



Farm Lands in Canada 



THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY 

(Colonisation Department) 
MAKE IT EASY 
for the British farmer and farm worker 
TO SETTLE IN CANADA. 

Easy terms of payment spread over 20 years if desired. 
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Farms can be selected in the best agricultural districts. 
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For full particulars and Illustrated Pamphlets apply to:— 

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Colonisation and Development Department, 

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FRAME BUILDINGS 



BUILD YOUR OWN 
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Are the majority of cheap portable buildings con- 
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any doubt examine them or ask the manufacturers. 
Are our frames simple to erect ? Yes, every piece is numbered and a diagram provided, enabling you to erect a 
building covering 40 sq. feet in an hour. Are they portable when finished ? Yes, the front, back and ends are 
assembled separately and then bolted together. 



A Few Sizes. Lean-to :— 






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SPECIAL QUOTATIONS FORC PIG HOUSES ANDf 'APPLIANCES. 

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MINISTRY OP AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES. 

RECENT MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS. 



M.P. No. 18. Cultivation of Osiers and Willows. — A new 

edition of this publication has now been issued. It has been 
largely re-written, a chapter on the growing of tree willows has 
been added, and the notes on the cultivation of basket willows 
expanded, greater stress being laid on the special methods 
employed in the various willow growing districts. 

Price Is. 6d. net, post free. 

M.P. No. 30. Manuring of Pastures for Meat and Milk 

(William Somerville, M.A., D.Sc). — The Ministry invited 
Professor Somerville to prepare a new and up-to-date Keport 
covering the whole ground relating to the manuring of pasture 
for meat and milk. In publishing this Report the Ministry 
desires to direct the attention of farmers to the important and 
practical character of the information here summarised for their 
use. Price 6d. net, post free. 

M.P. No. 32. Rations for Livestock (T. B. Wood, C.B.E., 
M.A., F.R.S., F.I.C.). — In this pamphlet is described a 
simple general method of working out rations for horses, cattle, 
sheep and pigs. The method is based on the tables giving the 
composition and nutritive value of a large number of feeding 
stuffs, and on the curves showing the relation between live 
weight and food requirements, which are given at the end of 
the pamphlet. Three impressions of the first edition of this 
publication have been sold, and the second edition, which has 
been brought up-to-date, is now obtainable. 

Price 6d. net, post free. 

M.P. No. 35. Report on a Test of Hedge and Stump Clearing 
Devices. — The description, method of operation and account of 
trial, is given in each case, for hand grubbing tools, timber 
jacks, stump extractor, triple horse puller, compound steam 
tractor, steam ploughing engine, motor tractor, farmer's dyna- 
mite, liquid air and amatol. The Keport is well illustrated and 
tables are given showing the detailed results of the test. 

Price 2s. 6d. net, post free. 

M.P. No. 37. Beneficial Insects.— Ladybirds, and Lacewing, 
Hover, Ichneumon and Tachinid Flies. Only too frequently 
these insects are mistaken for foes and destroyed. The brief 
descriptions of them and short outlines of their life-histories 
together with the coloured plates may help towards their wider 
recognition. Price 4d. net, post free. 

A full list of publications can be obtained from the Ministry 
10, Whitehall Place, London, S.W.I. 



vi THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OY AGRICULTURE. — Advertisements . 



YOUR BIG OPPORTUNITY FOR PROFIT. 

MANY FARMERS GO WITHOUT THE BEST WHEATS BECAUSE THEY THINK 
THEY CANNOT AFFORD THEM. 

When YOU go to a sale, you do not hesitate to pay more for a cow that will give 8,000 lb. of 
milk yearly than for one that does not even pay for her keep. Mere lowness of price isn't 
crerythiTig. It, is WHAT YOU GET FOR WHAT YOU PAY that counts. 

If YOU want to realise, once and for always, that there is as much difference between highly- 
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44 National Utility Poultry Society/' 

3, Vincent Square, Westminster, S.W. i. 



President : The Rt. Hon. Lord Claud Hamilton. 
Chairman: S. Street-Porter. Vice-Chairman: Marcus Slade. 

Secretary: Mrs. Rawson. 
Hon, Treasurer: Thos. Savage. Hon. Organising Secretary : T. R. Robinson, F.S.L 

The Society exists for the promotion of the Industry and protection of the interests 
of the Poultry-Keeper. 

The Society has special Committees to deal with the various aspects of the Industry. 

The Society has many branches and facilitates the interchange of speakers at 
different meetings. 

Members and staff of the Society advise by either correspondence or personal interview. 
The Society was the organiser of Laying Tests. 

For Prospectus, Year Book and publications apply to the Secretary at the above 
address. 

Normal Subscription, 10s. ; Small Owners, 5s. ; Fellowships 1 guinea and 2. guineas^ 
to include weekly "Journal" etc.; Life Membership, 5 guineas. 

"THE NATIONAL POULTRY JOURNAL " IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY. 



V 11 



CONTENTS. 



Notes for the Month — Page 

Sir Arthur Boscawcas Farewell Address to Farmers — Importation of 
Canadian Store Cattle — Clean Milk Production — Fluctuations in 
Live Weight — Village History — Lectures on Agricultural Research 
— Conciliation Committees — The Agricultural Iiulw Number ... 673 

The Possibility of Using Town Refuse as Manure. Sir John Russell, 

D.Sc, F.R.S 685 

The Clydesdale. A. MacNeilage 601 

Labour on the Farm. A. G. Ruston, B.A.. D.S<:. and J. S. Simpson, 

b.Sc. ... ' ! Wr\ — 69 ? 

Ground Mineral Phosphates as Manures. Professor J). A. Gilchrist. 70S 

The Planning and Construction of Farm Buildings : A Modern 

Homestead. Major H. P. G. Maule, D.S.O., M.C., F.R.LB.A. ... 7W 

Possibilities of Fruit and Vegetable Growing in Durham and 



Cheshire. W. G. Lobjoit, J.P., O.B.E. 717 

The Potato Flour Industry in Holland. Th. I. Manslwtt 720 

A Safe Method of Preventing "Bunt" in Wheat. E. S. Salmon 

and If. Wormald 722 

The First Year's "Working of the Seeds Act, 1920 729 

Redemption of Tithe Rentcharge by Annuity 733 

The Making of Clogs, Clog-Soles and Clog-Blocks. Katharine S. 

Woods 738 

Food in Relation to Egg Production. E. J. Davey 745 

A New Apple Pest. J. C. F. Fryer, M.A. 748 

A Local Investigation of the Food of the Little 0\tl. Walter E. 

Collinge, D.Sc, F.L.S 750 

Notes on Manures for November. Sir John Russell, D.Sc , F.R.S. 752 

Notes of Feeding Stuffs for November. E. T. Hainan, M.A., Dip. 

Agric. {Cantab.) 756 

Poultry Keeping in Gloucestershire ... ... ... ... ... ... 759 

National Rat Week, 1922 761 

A Modern Method of Rat Destruction 762 

Hereford Fruit Market : Sale ot Guaranteed Lots by Sample 763 

Gulval Fruit Plot 764 

Yorkshire Fruit Demonstration Station 765 

Clean Milk Production ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 766 

Foot-and- Mouth Disease ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 768 

Licensing of Stallions under the Horse Breeding Act, 1918 ... ... 768 



Any of the Articles in this Journal may be reproduced in any registered 
newspaper or public periodical without special permission, provided that the source 
is acknowledged in each case. 

The Ministry does not accept responsibility for the views expressed and tin 
statements made by contributors, nor for any statements made in the advertisement 
mthtmns of this Journal. 



Vlll 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE. — Advertisements 




Telegrams : 
PAGAN INI, CANNON, LONDON.' 

Telephone: AVENUE 1729 ( 8 lines). 



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LONDON, E.C. 4. 




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Information gladly given by — 

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OR AT 

STAND 478 at the ROYAL SHOW at CAMBRIDGE. 




THE JOURNAL 

OF THE 

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE 

Vol. XXIX. No. 8. 



NOVEMBER, 1922. 



NOTES FOR THE MONTH. 

Speaking at the National Farmers' Union Dinner on Wed- 
nesday, 18th October, Sir Arthur Boscawen said that, as they 

well knew, there was a very serious crisis 
Sir Arthur Bos- in ntical affai the result of which D0 - 
cawen's Farewell h J y ^ but there might be 

Address to cnanges j n tne Government or a complete 
Farmers. cnan o- e of Government in the near future. 
This might, therefore, be the last occasion on which he should 
address a meeting of the National Farmers' Union as Minister 
of Agriculture. In saying that, he would like to add that his 
relations with the National Farmers' Union had always been 
most cordial and they had reposed in him confidence in a most 
generous way. He should never forget their kindness and could 
assure them that in whatever capacity he might be in the 
future, he would always do his best to further the cause of 
agriculture, and especially of those who were actually engaged 
in the cultivation of the soil. The fact, however, that this 
might be the last occasion enabled him to speak more freely 
than otherwise he might have done. 

Agriculture was certainly going through a critical time, and 
he had the deepest sympathy with all classes engaged in it, 
owners, farmers and labourers. Undoubtedly, at the present 
moment, in many departments the industry could not be made 
to pay, but he thought there was a good future for the dairy 
farmer and fair hopes for the live stock industry generally; he 
did not see, however, how arable farmers, especially corn 
growers, could carry on on anything like the present scale. The 
result of this would be, as Mr. Orwin had pointed out in 
The Times, that the country would revert to grass very rapidly, 
that there would be a great decrease in the rural population and 
much temporary unemployment and distress. It looked as if 
the future of British agriculture lay in large farms cultivated 
cheaply and with low production, interspersed with patches of 
land intensively cultivated for fruit and vegetables in certain 

(45571). P.1./E.3. 10,500. 10/22. M. & S. A 



674 



favoured localities. What could be done to stop this? There 
were two remedies which would be effective, but neither of 
them he thought was politically practicable. One was a tariff 
and the other subsidies. He did not believe the country, which 
was predominantly urban, would stand either. They must 
recollect that the agricultural population was a small fraction 
of the total population of the country, and the great majority 
of the electors, of the House of Commons, and by consequence 
of the Government of the day, whatever party the Government 
belonged to, would be predominantly urban. 

The fact was that the industry must work out its own 
salvation on an economic basis, and all that the Government 
could do or would do, was to assist by measures which he 
would only describe as palliatives. Personally, he advocated 
the following : First, a relief in the burden of rating where the 
farmer was unfairly assessed compared with other people, 
since he had to occupy such a very large amount of rateable 
property in order to earn his living. But they must not expect 
salvation from rating reform. He had seen the accounts of 
several farms where accounts had been most scientifically kept, 
and the rates only counted for about 3 per cent, of the total 
outgoings. In the next place, rating reform was very difficult 
because the urban ratepayers demanded relief also. In many 
of our great towns the rates were over 20s. in the pound, and 
it would be very difficult to deal w T ith agricultural rates apart 
from the rating question generally, but they should press for 
a general revision of the rating system coupled with some 
special relief to agricultural land. 

In the next place, he thought it would be possible that the 
Government should set up better credit facilities than existed 
for farmers to-day. A small committee had been appointed 
to investigate the possibility of establishing with Government 
assistance co-operative land banks for the purpose of making 
loans to land-owners for permanent improvements and also 
short-term loans to farmers to enable them to carry on their 
business. This was very necessary since the alteration in the 
system of banking in this country and the elimination of the 
country banker had made it difficult for farmers to obtain loans 
on reasonable terms without collateral security. 

Then he thought thai inquiry should be instituted into the 
question of railway rates in order to ascertain definitely whether 
preference was or was not given to produce coming from over- 
seas, and with a view to reducing the present rates. 



1922.] 



Sir Arthur Bosca wen's Address. 



675 



But beyond all things, the question of distribution must be over- 
hauled. He made no general charge against the middlemen that 
they were making excessive profits. When we saw that English 
wheat was selling to-day at little more than pre-war prices, 
while bread w r as costing little less than twice pre-war prices, 
there must be something radically wrong with our system of 
distribution. There were too many persons and too many 
interests interposed between the producer and the consumer. 
Here he thought the farmers had the remedy chiefly in their own 
hands, and the Government could do little. Co-operation ap- 
peared to be the solution. It was this difficulty between whole- 
sale and retail prices that caused the chief trouble to-day. The 
farmer, unable to see how to make a profit, attempts to do so 
by cheapening the cost of production, and the only item where 
he can secure a reduction worth mentioning is labour, which 
accounts for nearly 50 per cent, of his costs. But the labourer, 
owing to high retail prices, can scarcely live on a wage less than 
he is getting now. There is the difficulty. The farmer says : 
" I cannot pay more than 25s. a week," and the labourer says : 
" T cannot live on less than 30s." — both appeal to the Govern- 
ment. The Government is powerless to act, except by giving a 
subsidy which would in effect be a subsidy to wages. We should 
be getting back to the system of the old Poor Laws, when wages 
were directly subsidized by the ratepayer, a system which was 
condemned by all parties and was thoroughly unsound. He had 
seriously thought of trying to reintroduce a subsidy on arable 
land as a temporary expedient for one year, provided that the 
farmers continued to employ as mam^ men as now and to pay 
not less than the present wages. His idea was to tide over an 
acute crisis, but he did not think that the plan was possible. 
Other industries, for example, the mining industry, which was 
suffering seriously to-day, would claim the same assistance, 
and we should not be sure that the experiment once made would 
not have to be repeated next year. 

All this he knew was but cold comfort, but they must fight 
on and make the best of the situation. He did not believe the 
depression would last. He believed the present distress was due 
to temporary causes, the first being the thoroughly uneconomic 
methods we employed during the War. and the second, the col- 
lapse of foreign exchanges, which made this country the dump- 
ing ground for the superfluous products of the whole world. 
These causes would gradually disappear, and he thought a 
period of high prices was not very far distant. In the meantime. 

a 2 



676 Importation of Canadian Store Cattle. [Nov., 



however, he feared that some farmers would go under and that 
there would be much unemployment and distress among the 
labourers, but he could honestly say that he had not failed to 
bring the position in all its gravity before his colleagues. 

As a member of the Government he would add one word. It 
was not true that the present Government had neglected agri- 
culture. Only this year we had altered the assessment for 
income tax in the interest of the farmer, which he knew 
brought substantial relief in many cases, and we had remitted 
the duty on home-grown sugar in order to stimulate a new and 
valuable industry. Then, we were spending very large sums 
on agricultural education and research, which had in the past, 
and would still more in the future, help to reduce the cost of 
production. These were sound lines to proceed upon, and he 
did not know what more could be done at the present, except 
in the direction of those reforms to which he had alluded. 

One word in conclusion. He had pointed out that agricul- 
turists in this country were in a minority; then by all means 
let them stand together. The interests of owner, farmer and 
labourer were identical, yet too often we found them pulling 
against each other. There was, however, certainly a tendency 
to come together now, which was largely due to the action 
of the National Farmers' Union. Unless they all stood to- 
gether, they would not have much chance of making their 
voices heard, and he would advise : keep agricultural policy and 
party politics quite apart. The National Farmers' Union did 
this, and he could fairly say that while he had been Minister, 
he had never approached agricultural questions from a party 
point of view. With regard to the labourers, it was a matter 
for regret that their Unions were tied to one political party. 
He did not say this out of any disrespect for the leaders of the 
Unions, for many of whom he had great respect, but it could 
not be good that the interests of agricultural labour should be 
identified with a political party. 



In consequence of the resolutions adopted by the House of 
Commons on 24th July and by the House of Lords on 26th 
I t tion of e ^ u ty' a Conference was held at the Colonial 
Canadian Store ^^ ee on ^ n October between representa- 
Cattle ^ VGS °^ Government and of the 

Canadian Government to discuss the admis- 
sion of Canadian cattle. Mr. Churchill presided, and in addition 
there were present Sir Arthur G. "Rosea wen. Minister of Agri- 



Clean Milk Production. 



677 



culture and Fisheries; the Hon. W. S. Fielding, Minister of 
Finance, Canada; the Hon. E. Lapointe, Minister of Marine. 

Canada; the Hon. P. C. Larkin, High Commissioner for Canada 
in London; and representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture 
and Fisheries., the Scottish Office, the Board of Agriculture for 
Scotland, and the Canadian Department of Agriculture. 

A general discussion on principles having taken place, certain 
technical questions were remitted to a committee of experts 
representing both countries. 

Further meetings of the Conference were held on the 18th 
and 20th October, Sir Arthur G. Boscawen presiding, in the 
absence of Mr. Churchill through illness. The conclusions of 
the committee of experts were considered and the Conference 
agreed upon the main conditions which should govern the impor- 
tation of Canadian cattle into Great Britain, and these terms 
will be submitted to the new Government with a view to the 
introduction of the necessary Bill when Parliament next meets. 



The demand for clean milk is increasing. Great efforts are 
being made to educate Ihe public to appreciate clean milk and 

Clean Milk ^° ca ^ ^ or ^ s su PPty* 

Production Quite apart from the fact that the produc- 

tion of milk in a cleanly manner brings its 
own reward by causing the milk to keep sweet longer and hence 
avoiding loss by souring, the indications are that, in future, 
clean fresh milk will command the most satisfactory market. 

The section of the Milk and Dairies (Amendment) Act, 1922, 
which refers to grading, is due to come into operation on 1st 
January next. From that time more attention to the production 
of milk of a definite grade is a matter deserving of the attention 
of every dairy farmer. 

The regulations applying to the different grades will be em- 
bodied in an Order to be issued by the Ministry of Health. 
When the Act was passed, it was contemplated that, apart from 
ordinary milk, there would be two main grades, namely. 

Certified," and " Grade A," but a provision was embodied 
empowering the Minister of Health to establish additional grades. 
The grade " Certified " will be what has hitherto been known 
as "Grade A (Certified)." It is milk of the highest purity, 
produced only from cows which have passed the tuberculin test 
It must be bottled on the farm, and at any time before it reaches 
the consumer if must not contain more than 80.000 bacteria per 



678 



cubic centimetre. In addition it is necessary to comply with 
certain specified conditions as judged by inspection. It follows 
therefore that the production of " Certified " milk is a special- 
ised business, and that such milk must be sold at an enhanced 
price to meet additional costs in production and distribution. 
It is not expected that this grade will monopolise the market, 
but the demand for it is steadily growing, and for those who are 
prepared to lay out capital in establishing a herd which passes 
i he tuberculin test, in providing the necessary equipment, and 
who will take the trouble to train their employees, it does offer 
economic possibilities. 

" Grade A " will, as at present suggested, be divided into 
two sections, namely, " Grade A, Raw," and " Grade A, Pas- 
teurised." The herds producing milk of this grade (both sec- 
tions; are not to be required to pass the tuberculin test, but they 
will be required to pass a physical inspection made by an 
approved veterinary surgeon. In the case of " Grade A, Eaw " 
milk the only other requirement which need be mentioned is 
that it must not at any time before it reaches the consumer 
contain more than the number of bacteria which will be specified 
in the Order. To qualify for a licence to sell " Grade A, Pas- 
teurised " milk the act of pasteurising must be performed in 
accordance with a prescribed method, and the milk so treated 
must afterwards comply, in respect of the number of bacteria 
contained, with a much lower count than in the case of 
" Grade A, Raw " milk. Generally speaking it is not expected 
that the ordinary farmer will be able to produce and sell, directly, 

Grade A. Pasteurised " milk. His part will be to supply 

Grade A. Raw " milk either for direct consumption or to a 
wholesale dealer or co-operative society who will carry out the 
work of pasteurisation. 

It is likelv fchsfc in course of time there will be a considerable 
demand for Grade A milk. No farmer need be afraid of the 
conditions with which it will be necessary to comply in order 
to obtain a Grade A certificate. There will be nothing in them 
that any producer cannot meet provided he and his employees 
will take the trouble to study and adopt the most approved 
methods of guarding against contamination, and that he will 
cool his milk well. What is wanted is an intelligent apprecia- 
tion, by employer and employed, of the things that matter, and 
a determination to carry them out. 

The Ministry has had experience of the useful work which can 
be done by County Instructors in helping farmers and farm 



1922.] 



Fluctuations in Live Weight. 



679 



workers to master the art of clean milk production. It has been 
found that such assistance is effectively rendered by holding 
practical demonstrations on the farm followed by such lectures 
as may be necessary to explain the why and wherefore of the 
precautionary measures adopted, and by the organising of clean 
milk competitions. Because of this experience, and because it 
is expected that the farmers' need for such assistance will be 
greater in the future than it has been in the past the Ministry 
has recently addressed a letter on the subject to all County Edu- 
cation Authorities in England and Wales (see p. 764). 



The articles by Mr. E. S. Beaven which recently appeared 

in the Journal on the subject of variety trials of cereals, point 

„, .. verv emphatically to the need for greater 

Fluctuations in v f J f n , • inl 

... care and accuracy m carrying out agricul- 

Weig . eX p eriments f one description. That 

equal care is needed in relation to another description of experi- 
ments — feeding trials with cattle — may also be emphasised. 

For example, in the Agricultural Journal of India for May of 
the present year, there appears an article entitled " Normal 
Fluctuations in Body Weight of Bovines." It deals with a sub- 
ject which is of great importance to all experimenters undertaking 
feeding experiments with cattle. In carrying out such trials it 
is sometimes the practice to record only initial and final weights 
of animals under experiment. In determining these weights it 
is generally considered sufficient to ascertain the fasted live 
weight on one or two succeeding days at the beginning and close 
of the experiment. In the case of the experiments under notice, 
however, daily weighings were made of a number of animals 
(buffaloes) for a period of 88 days. Charts are published showing 
the daily variation of two animals, one set of a " control " and 
the other of an animal receiving a fattening ration. These charts 
show the most surprising changes from day to-day. For example, 
we have such figures as the following on successive days : — 324. 
329, 342, 336. 332. 329. 335 and (eleven days after) 305, 310, 
320, 315 lb. Similar results were obtained from a large number 
of animals. The principal conclusions arrived at are (1) that any 
conclusions as to the suitability of a ration or feeding stuff when 
based on data obtained from initial and final weighings, or 
weekly or fortnightly weighings, are practically valueless, (2) that 
weights should be taken daily, and conclusions based on the 
averages of weighings of groups of at least ten successive days. 



680 



Village History. 



[Nov., 



It is improbable that the fluctuations observed were due to 
conditions peculiar to India. The author quotes an American 
experiment (Armsby, The Nutrition of Farm Animals, 1917) 
which points to the same conclusions, and in which daily fluctua- 
tions in the weight of a mature steer up to 5 per cent, of the 
body weight were observed. Many American investigators now 
take averages over ten successive days, in carrying out experi- 
ments involving the live weights of cattle. 

Then, in this country, variations of the same order were 
recently observed in the course of certain experiments on the 
nutrition of cows carried out at Leeds University by Crowther 
and Woodman. Fluctuations in the weights of cows up to 43 lb. 
on two successive davs were observed. 

Facts of this description show how necessary it is under modern 
conditions to secure greater accuracy than has been observed in 
the past in experimental work with animals. The sources of 
error in feeding trials may be even greater than those with which 
Mr. Beaven's trenchant articles were concerned, for not only is 
the weight of one animal subject to considerable fluctuations but 
the variation from animal to animal is very large. 

****** 

Of the value of local history no one now needs to be con- 
vinced. Its inspiration serves not only to preserve what is 

TT-n 4- best in the past, but to assure a higher 

Village History. , ™ 

standard of living m the present, ivlore 

of us than ever now know those little towns of Flanders where 
the unlovely creations of the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- 
turies are replaced, sometimes, perhaps, with a too conscious 
archaism, by worthier memorials of the genius of the country, 
and where it is hard to escape Flemish pottery, Flemish lace, 
Flemish silverwork, Flemish beer. Even if the emphasis is 
a little overdone, if there is too much stage furniture designed 
to please the eye of the visitor, yet commercialism at its worst 
cannot undo the gxTod that lies in building houses which really 
do express something of the spirit of the people, and in making 
wares which are known for what they are without the aid 
of an inscription. 

Mr. Guy Ewing. whose account of an interesting experi- 
ment appeared in the October issue of this Journal makes 
an effective plea for the practical study of village history. He 
has worked single-handed , hut lest others who are not equipped 
as he is for the task should hesitate to follow his example, it 
is not out of place to remind them that assistance may be had 



1922. j Lectures on x\ghicultural Research. 681 



from several quarters. The Historical Association (22, Russell 
Square, W.C.) is now a large body with branches ail over the 
country : one of its aims is to foster the study of local history, 
and the co-operation of a neighbouring branch is almost certain 
to be forthcoming. Archaeological societies exist in many 
counties, and the officers and members are always willing to 
give advice and help in exploring the history of a village and 
in the discovery of its antiquities. Much can be done, even 
without such help, by anyone who will study such books as 
Dr. Charles Cox's " How to write the History of a Parish," 
the Victoria County Histories and the few other county his- 
tories that rank with them, the publications of local archaeo- 
logical societies, and Dr. Hubert Hall's "Directory of British 
Archives" and his "List of Agrarian Surveys." With the 
aid of these books one may learn to know at least what docu- 
ments to look for and where to look for them. Guidance in 
the search of antiquities which are not documentary is not so 
readily available, but Mr. and Mrs. Quinnell's "History of 
Everyday Things" should at least prove suggestive. A flair 
for recognising those things which will best illustrate the past 
is as desirable as knowledge : and, unfortunately, there is no 
recipe for acquiring a flair. But it is to be supposed that no 
one would undertake the task of studying or demonstrating 
village history on practical lines who did not possess a rudi- 
mentary flair, which practice and enthusiasm would develop. 



Thh Ministry endeavours in many ways to bring before 
farmers the results of agricultural research — by its advisory 
Lectures on scheme, in which college and county staffs 

Agricultural p,ay their part; by leaflets and articles m 
R°s°arch ^ S ^ ourna ^ ; an( * °y miscellaneous publica- 
tions such as the recently-issued volume on 
" Agricultural Research and the Farmer." It is now proposed 
to bring research workers more directly into touch with the 
farmer, and arrangements have been made with the National 
Farmers' Union to organise meetings which will be addressed 
by specialists in the various branches of agricultural science. 
The scheme is certainly an experiment, but if it proves to be 
as successful as is anticipated this winter, it may well obtain 
a permanent place in the organisation of the work of the 
Ministry. A list of meetings, with the dates which have so far 
been definitely fixed, is given below. Any inquiries with regard 



682 Lectures on Agricultural Research. [Nov., 



to the arrangements should be addressed to the Secretary of 
the Branch of the National Farmers' Union concerned. 



Branch of the 
National Farmers' 
Union 

Bed;-; and Hunts 



Bucks 



Subject 
Chosen 

The General 
Cropping of 
Arable Land 

Milk Produc- 
tion and 
Dairying 



Lecturer 



Institute 



Mr. A. Amos School of Agricul- 



ture, Cambridge 



Date 

of 
Lecture 

December 
16th 



Mi. J. Mac- 
intosh 



National Institute for November 



Keseaich in 
ing 



Dairy- 15th 



Cheshire 



Gloucester 



Lines 



Agricultural 
Rating 

Wheat 



Lines (Holland) Pests affect- 
ing mus- 
tard, turnip 
seed and 
peas 
... Insect Pests 



Northants 



Oxford 



Pembroke 



Soil Research Sir John Rus- Rothamsted Experi- 
sell mental Station 

Mr. C. S. Institute for Re- 
Orwin search in Agricul- 

tural Economics 

Prof. R. H. Plant Breeding Re- 
Bift'en search Institute, 

Cambridge Univer- 
sity 

Prof. F. V. Research and Ad vis- 
Theobald ory Dept., South 
Eastern Agricultur- 
al College, Wye, 
Kent 

Rothamsted Experi- 
mental Station 



November 
11th 



Dr. A 
Imms 

Insect Pests Prof. F. \ 
Theobald 



January 
27th 

Research and Advis- Januaiy 



Silage 



Sal 



op 



Mr. J 
Blackshaw 

Dr. W. B 

Brierley 



ory Dept., South 
Eastern Agricultur- 
al College, Wye 

F. Ministry of Agricul- 
ture 



10th 



Sussex. E. 



N.R. Yorks 



W.R. Yorks. 

Doncaster 

W.R. Yorks, 

Leeds 



Parasitic 
attacks on 
Cereals and 
Diseases of 
Tubers 

Digestibility Prof. T 
of Feeding Wood 
Stuffs 



Rothamsted Experi- November 



mental Station 



14th 



B. 



Plant Breed- 
ing 



Wire 



worm 



Prof. R 
Biffen 



Dr. A. 
Imms 



H. 



Economy in 
Production 
of Winter 
Milk by 
Growing 
Fodder 
( 'i ons 



Animal Nutrition 
Research Institute, 
Cambridge Univer- 
sity 

Plant Breeding 
Research Institute. 
Cambridge Univer- 
sity 

D. Rothamsted Experi- 
mental Station 

Mr. J. Mack- National Institute for 
intosh Research in Dairy- 

ing 



November 
3rd 



* 



1922.] 



The Agricultural Index Number. 



683 



During the past month the Cumberland and Westmorland 
Committee, whose current agreement is due to expire at Martin- 

_ ... .. mas, has reached a further agreement for 

Conciliation ' „ . , ? . . , 

~ ... . the following six monthly hiring period, 

Committees in • , , & . . « 

. . the terms being as follows : — 

Agriculture. e 

T. — Skilled Workers. 

Workers aged. 

21 an 1 over 37/- per week of customary hours > 

20 & under 21 ... 32/- „ „ ' ,. „ / Customary hours 

18 to 20 28/- „ „ „ „ „ f are 63 per week! 

16 „ 18 23/- „ „ „ „ ' 

77. — Other Male Workers. 

'21 & over 30/- per week of 54 hours in summer and 48 hours in 

winter. 

/// . — Fema le Wo rke rs . 
16 & over 5d. per hour. 

The precise period of operation of this agreement is from 11th 
November, 1922, to 19th May, 1923. 

The Cornwall Committee has reached an agreement operating 
over the period from 23rd October to 31st December. The terms 
provide for the payment of efficient adult male agricultural 
labourers at the rate of 30s. for a week of 52 hours, and it is 
understood that the Committee have under consideration the 
question of the registration of the agreement. 

The Committee for Ashbv Bosworth, Hincklev and Ather- 
stone areas has reached an agreement for the payment of 
31s. 6d. for a week of 54 hours. The question of overtime rate* 
has been deferred to a later date. In addition, the Cheshire, 
Staffordshire and Worcestershire Committees agreed to extend 
their last agreements up to 14th, 31st and 28th October 
respectively. 



A further fall is recorded in the index number of prices of 
agricultural produce in England and Wales during September. 

The Agricultural the avera § e mci 'case compared with the 

Index Number. Responding month in the years 1911 to 

1913 being 57 per cent, m September 
against 67 per cent, in August. 

In the following table are shown the increases in each month 
since the beginning of 1921. the corresponding month in 1911 
to 1918 being raken as the basis of comparison in each case : — 



684 



The Agricultural Index Number. 



[Not., 





Percentage Increase 




Percentage Tncreas* 


itioiiin. 


in I 


'rices. 


Mont h . 


in Prices. 




1921 


1922 




1921 1922 


January ... 


... 183 


... 75 


July t : 


... 112 ... 72 


February 


... 167 


... 79 


August .. 


... 131 ... 67 


March 


... 150 


... 77 


fcSei -leinber 


... IK) ... 57 


Ap:il 


... 149 


... 70 


October .. 


... 86 


May ... 


... 119 


... 71 


November 


... 79 


June 


... 112 


... 68 


December 


... 76 


Nearly all 


descriptions of prod 


uce shared 


in the reduction, the 



only increase being in the case of eggs. Wheat, barley and oats 



all fell heavily, and the average prices during September were 
only from 23 to 31 per cent, higher than in the corresponding 
month of 1911 to 1913. 

Potatoes were also cheaper and daring September were at 
practically pre-war level, while a slight reduction occurred in the 
case of hay. 

All descriptions of live stock experienced a fall, pigs being least 
affected. Milk was unchanged in price, but cheese and butter 
were relatively cheaper than in August, as compared with the 
corresponding months in 1911 to 1913. Prices of poultry re- 
mained practically unchanged, but eggs advanced sharply, 
decidedly more so than was customary between August and 
September before the War. 

The reduction in the general index number of all produce was 
materially assisted by a further reduction in the prices of fruit 
and vegetables, the former averaging about 16 per cent, below 
and vegetables 20 per cent, above the prices ruling in September 
before the War. 

The following table shows the average increase during recent 
months in the value of the principal commodities sold by the 
farmer : — 

Percentage Increase as compared with the Average Prices ruling m 

THE CORRESPONDING MONTHS OF 1911-13. 







April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Wheat 




57 


62 


60 


53 


53 


23 


Barley 




49 


49 


58 


49 


48 


26 


Oats ... 




49 


53 


57 


55 


59 


31 


Fat cattle 




65 


70 


71 


70 


70 


58 


Fat sbeep 




128 


140 


121 


107 


103 


90 


Fat pigs 




90 


91 


82 


91 


92 


84 


Eggs 




89 


50 


69 


80 • 


64 


96 


Poultry 




83 


110 


116 


103 


85 


85 


Milk ... 




42 


27 


28 


53 


70 


70 


Butter 




49 


54 


59 


79 


77 


76 


Cbeese 




46 


48 


55 


50 


51 


41 


Potatoes 




95 . 


140 


• 80 


75 


14 


1 


Hay ... 




28 


33 


35 


37 


54 


52 


* 


* 


* 




* 


* 







1922.] Town Refuse as Manure. 685 



THE POSSIBILITY OF USING TOWN 
REFUSE AS MANURE. 

Sir John Russell, D.Sc, F.R.S., 
Rothamsted Experimental Station. 

In recent years the shortage of town stable manure has com- 
pelled farmers who used to rely on this material to cast about 
for substitutes. Among the various possibilities is to be reckoned 
ashpit refuse, which is available in large quantities but is at 
present used to a very limited extent. Most of us have seen 
and smelt the huge refuse dumps that have grown up round 
London, and if the fertiliser value could be assessed by the 
disagreeable odour the case for town refuse would be sufficiently 
convincing. As might be expected, there is an increasing 
reluctance on the part of country people to allow the countryside 
to be disfigured in this way. A less objectional method than 
that of dumping in country districts is to incinerate the 
refuse, but this is costly, and of course is sheer waste. 
More up-to-date town authorities are now making an effort to 
dispose of their refuse in a better and more useful way, and 
some are adding other wastes and crushing the whole for use as 
a fertiliser. 

Present Use as Manure. — It is not easy to arrive at any 
clear estimate of the fertiliser value of so mixed a material as 
town refuse. Analysis alone does not afford sufficient informa- 
tion, and field trials, which constitute the only reliable means, 
are very slow. 

There is, however, a certain body of experience on the part 
of farmers who have used town refuse on which one may usefully 
draw for guidance. Broadly speaking, town refuse has given 
successful results in two cases : — 

(a) On heavy-land farms or allotments, where it is used for 
root crops, cabbages, etc. ; 

(b) For raising the level of low-lying wet ground and 
forming new land which can be used for allotments. 
Considerable quantities of town refuse have been used by 

farmers on the heavy London Clay soils of the Home Counties. 
About 10 tons per acre is a usual dressing; it should be spread 
before the winter ploughing begins so that it can be well worked 
into the soil. It then lightens the stiff soil and facilitates culti- 
vation generally, and good root and other crops are usually 



686 



Town Refuse as Manure. 



[Nov., 



obtained. Farmers round some of the larger Scottish towns, 
e.g., Glasgow, Dundee, Perth, and Aberdeen, use considerable 
amounts, probably even more than those round London. Un- 
crushed refuse is sold from Dundee, where the demand is 
stated to be greater than the supply : the 1921 deliveries are 
said to have been 39,000 tons. An important factor that greatly 
helps the consumption of this material in Scotland is that very 
favourable railway rates are in operation. In England the 
railway rates, generally speaking, are much higher than those 
for stable manure, and so it comes about that up to the present 
experience of this material is in the main limited to farmers 
on heavy land in the immediate vicinity of towns. 

The amounts of ashpit refuse available over the country are 
very large. It is estimated that no few«»r than 10,000,000 tons 
per annum are produced in England and Wales, while in 
London alone the production is estimated at 1,500,000 tons per 
annum. The towns might afford to spend some money on 
converting the material into fertiliser since at the present time 
they spend something like £6, 000 ,000 per annum on collection 
and disposal. 

Types and Composition of Refuse. — There are four types 
of refuse sent out from towns : — 

1. " Dry refuse " : the contents of ashpits. 

2. Night soil : produced in towns where the pail system 
is used. It is dried and granulated and contains some 5 \ per 
cent, nitrogen, 5 J per cent, phosphates and 2 J per cent, 
potash. 

3. " Mixed refuse," i.e., dry refuse plus night soil mixed in 
certain proportions. A 50 per cent, mixture offered at Koch- 
dale contains 2.9 per cent, nitrogen, 3.6 per cent, phosphates 
(half being soluble and half insoluble) and 1.2 per cent, 
potash. 

4. Street sweepings and other wastes. 

Of these the street sweepings and the unmixed night soils 
are well known to farmers and are often easily disposed of. One 
of the large London districts disposes of its street sweepings at 
10s. per ton on the barge. Night soil in the dry form, unmixed 
with ashes, is now sold by the Rochdale, Warrington and prob- 
ably other corporations at a figure of about £7 per ton. If the 
methods used in these places were generally applicable to town 
and city conditions the problems arising out of the waste of 
sewage would be solved and the shortage of organic manures 



1922.] 



Town Refuse as Man ike. 



687 



on the farm would be greatly relieved; but we must expect 
these methods of conservancy to be superseded, and therefore 
we must turn to ashpit refuse as the only important unfailing 
source of this type of material. 

In its crude form the refuse contains a small percentage 
of cans, bottles, etc., of no use on the farm but indeed consti- 
tuting a nuisance. In the more progressive towns these are re- 
moved and the material undergoes a certain amount of sorting 
to remove coal, cinders, rags, bones, scrap metal, etc., for all 
of which a market can be found. Thus at Falkirk, where a 
good modern plant has been installed, the cinder amounts to 
some 35 per cent, of the total collection : it has a calorific value 
of 8,000 B.T.U. per lb., and after being taken out is used for 
steam raising at the local electricity station. Whatever the 
preliminary sorting treatment the remaining material is disin- 
tegrated to break up the larger and coarser materials. Three 
possibilities are then open : — 

1. Use without Modification. — The material can be offered 
to farmers as it stands. It is in good physical condition for 
putting on to the ground and for lightening a heavy soil. Its 
composition, however, is not particularly good in spite of its 
smell. Improvement is effected by enriching with a certain 
amount of other waste matter, such as street sweepings, 
slaughterhouse refuse, stable manure, etc.. and the final analysis 
comes out something like the following : — 



(Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 ) 0.7%— 1.1% 

Potash (K 2 0) 0.3%— -0.5% 

It is sometimes the practice to compare these figures with 
those for stable manure, but as a matter of fact the two things 
are so completely different that no comparison on the basis 
of analytical data is possible. In the case of stable manure it 
is not difficult to arrive at some estimate of value from a care- 
ful study of the analytical data, as there is the possibility of 
ascertaining approximately what proportions of the various' fer- 
tilising constituents have come from straw, faeces and urine, 
these being the three components. In the case of ashpit refuse 
it is impossible to say how much of the nitrogen comes from 
animal or vegetable refuse (where it would have a certain value). 



Organic matter ... 
Nitrogen... 

Phosphoric acid (P.,0 5 ) 
Equivalent to tricalcic phosphate 




088 



Town Refuse as Manure 



[Nov., 



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M 

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M 

S 

M- 



M O 



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CO 

S3 
c3 



cc 

0) c 

CX 

cc 



si 



o 

05 

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1922.] 



Town Refuse as Manure. 



689 



and how much from manurially worthless substances which may 
form a large part of the material. Something could be deduced 
if the organic matter (which of course includes much of the 
cinders) were divided in the analysis into easily combustible 
(vegetable and animal refuse), and not easily combustible 
material (cinders, etc.) ; but in no case can the analysis give 
very precise information. 

It would be a mistake to underrate the fertiliser effect of the 
nitrogen, potash and phosphate in the material, but equally of 
course it would be inadvisable to put too high a value on them. 
So far as our present experience goes the chief value of the ash- 
pit refuse itself lies in its physical effect in lightening a heavy 
soil, and any manurial action it mav have is to be attributed 
to any animal or vegetable refuse that may be present. The 
analysis does not easily show this, although a rough idea may be 
obtained from the nitrogen percentage. Inspection of samples 
delivered from London during the past season gave the impres- 
sion that winter deliveries contained a larger percentage of cin- 
ders and a smaller percentage of fertilising animal and vegetable 
matter than the summer deliveries ; hence probably the summer 
material would have rather a higher value to the farmer. The 
circumstance that much of the value of the refuse lies in its 
physical action makes it impossible to put any definite price on 
the refuse. It should of course be obtainable more cheaply than 
stable manure. On the other hand dressings of about 10 tons 
per acre have proved very useful on heavy land for root crops, 
cabbages, etc.. and a farmer is really justified in spending a 
certain amount of money to obtain this result. If towm stable 
manure costs about 12s. per ton on the farm it is probably not 
far wrong to say that town refuse would be worth, say, 6s. per 
ton on the farm, and more if the percentage of nitrogen rose 
above 0.6. 

2. Crushing — Some samples seen by the writer have been 
ground very finely. A certain amount of pulverisation is desir- 
able, but it is not clear how far anything is gained bv grinding 
too finely. The material of course is not like basic slag or 
mineral phosphate : it does not dissolve in the soil solution, and 
only the vegetable matter and the bones can gain in value by fine 
grinding. The actual ashes may even lose in value. 

3. Addition of Richer Materia}. — In some of the northern 
towms it is found possible to add a considerable proportion of 
night soil in addition to street sweepings, cattle market manure, 
slaughterhouse refuse and stable manure. An excellent fertiliser 

R 



690 



Town Refuse as Manure. 



[Nov., 



is thus obtained, containing one or more per cent, of nitrogen. 
One of the best illustrations in England is furnished by Gates- 
head, where the vigorously managed Cleansing Department 
is taking full advantage of the various available wastes. 
The Superintendent of this Department sends the following par- 
ticulars of the fertiliser made by the town authorities from the 
refuse. The tins, bottles, glass, etc., are removed, stable manure, 
slaughterhouse refuse, earth-closet material are added, and the 
whole passed through a pulverising machine and broken up to 
pass through a g- grate. As 90 per cent, of the houses in Gates- 
head are of the old earth-closet type the house refuse contains a 
considerable proportion of human excretions. It is not surprising 
therefore that the manure finds a readv sale. 

The material is offered at Gateshead at 2s. 6d. per ton. It is 
delivered in 5 tons lots, and on a farm 5 miles away, with the 
occupier of which the writer has discussed the matter fully, the 
price works out at 5s. 6d. per ton, the steam wagons taking the 
material where possible into the actual field which is to be 
treated. It has given good results on roots, and it improves the 
physical texture of the soil though it still remains to be seen 
whether the material lasts as well as farmyard manure. On the 
farm in question farmyard manure is estimated to cost 14s. 
per ton. 

An actual test was made at Cockle Park in 1921 to compare 
town refuse with farmyard manure. Both were applied at the 
rate of 15 tons per acre to a swede crop : the Gateshead refuse 
gave 21 J tons of swedes to the acre, and the farmyard manure 
gave 25 J tons. The season was dry and therefore more favour- 
able to farmyard manure than to town refuse. 

The enrichment of the refuse is shown by the fact that the 
nitrogen content runs as high as 1 per cent., whilst the samples 
of unfortified town refuse contain only about 0.5 per cent. It is 
understood that some 30,000-85,000 tons of the material were 
sold to farmers during the past season and that deliveries were 
effected as far south as Thirsk. 

An even richer fertiliser is now being prepared at Halifax 
(Table I) where it is understood the Corporation are contem- 
plating the erection of special mixing plant. 

Another instance of successful enrichment is afforded by 
Dundee, where cattle market and slaughterhouse wastes and offals 
are incorporated with the refuse, and this circumstance, together 
with the favourable railway rate largely explains the high con- 



1922.] 



The Clydesdale. 



691 



sumption which the authorities of that city have managed to 
obtain among local farmers. 

It has been proposed to add soot to the town refuse, but this 
would not be a sound procedure. During the War an enter- 
prising person offered 100,000 tons of enriched town refuse free 
on rail at £3 per ton : the composition of the mixture was : — 



Total nitrogen . . l'22°/ a 
Ammoniacal nitrogen 0*52 /., 



Potash (K 2 0) ... 0'80 9 / o 
Phosphoric acid (P a O.,) 0'30 / Q 



This of course would have been a very dear fertiliser. The 
figures are quoted as showing how uniform the material is in 
composition : if we deduct the ammoniacal nitrogen (which is 
mainly soot) from the total we arrive at a composition which 
is very similar to the figures given in Table I, viz., nitrogen 0.7 
per cent., phosphoric acid (P. T 0-) 0.3 per cent., potash (K 2 0) 
0.8 per cent. 

These modern prepared wastes are well worth attention by 
farmers, and trial lots may usefully be put on the root and 
cabbage land, and possibly also used for hay on stiff clay soils. 
A test has been started at Bothamsted, and other experimental 
farms might consider the possibility of arranging for trials. 

^fr tfr -yfr 

THE CLYDESDALE. 

A. MacNeilage. 

The Clydesdale is the Scottish breed of draught horses. Its 
name indicates its origin. Clydesdale is the old name for the 
county of Lanark, through which flows the river Clyde. The 
Clydesdale is the horse that was originally moulded into its 
established type and form by farmers holding land in the valley 
of the Clyde. Its fortunes, since the middle of the eighteenth 
century at least, have been identified with the Eoyal burgh 
of Lanark. There in the eighteenth and the earlier part of 
the nineteenth century annual fairs were held at wLich mobs 
of young colts and fillies w r ere sold to dealers and drafted into 
England. Another old-time fair was held at Biggar, higher up 
the Clyde Valley, and there also was done a notable trade in 
young Clydesdales. Now for thirty years past in the 
town of Lanark, under modern conditions, most extensive 
auction sales of Clydesdales — mainly yearlings and two-year- 
olds — have been held. Lanark and Clydesdale are emphatically 
the home of the Scottish breed of draught horses. 

How farmers in the area referred to first came to fix their 

b 2 



692 



The Clydesdale. 



[Nov., 



minds on breeding a heavy horse is not clear. There is reason 
to believe that a useful type of carrying horse had long been 
associated with the area and no doubt the advance in road- 
making, before the development of railway traffic, gradually 
led men to aim at producing a heavier horse better 
adapted for draught than for carrying. Tradition assigns in- 
fluence in increasing weight to the use of one or two Flemish 
stallions by the sixth Duke of Hamilton (1742-1758), and by 
John Paterson, a farmer in Lochlyoch parish of Thankerton, 
about the years 1715-1720. John Paterson and his stallion are 
authentic, and the late Lawrence Drew — a noted man in his 
time, and a great horse-breeder — credited the ownership of one 
Flemish stallion to the sixth Duke of Hamilton. 

At a later date — about the year 1780 — a horse called Blaze, 
owned by Mr. Scott, a farmer in Carnwath, admittedly greatly 
improved the native breed. Mr. Scott was an ancestor of Mr. 
James Weir, Sandilands, Lanark, President of the Clydesdale 
Horse Society for the current year (1922-23). Blaze was pur- 
chased in Ayrshire but whence he came to Ayrshire is not 
clearly known. It was said by some that he came from 
England. 

A notable breed of mares was owned by the family of Somer- 
ville, on Lampits farm in Carnwath parish, where there is a 
ford across Clyde. These Lampits mares were reputed to be of 
the Lochlyoch stock of John Paterson, and to one of them 
has been assigned a very powerful influence in the develop- 
ment of the modern Clydesdale. She was bought at a sale at 
Shotts Hill Mill in 1808. It may be doubted whether the 
links which bind the modern Clydesdale to this particular mare 
are quite as clearly established as the writer of the Introductory 
History to the Ketrospective Volume of the Clydesdale Stud 
Book supposed — but her influence was great — and Glancer, 
alias Thompson's Black Horse 335, was unquestionably a well- 
known and much valued sire. What is clearly and incontro- 
vertibly established is that the Clydesdale as bred in Aberdeen- 
shire and the north, in Galloway in the south, in the Kintyre 
peninsula, in Ayrshire and Benfrewshire in the west, and 
in Cumberland in the north of England, is descended directly 
from Lanarkshire horses and mares purchased during the first 
quarter of the nineteenth century in the Upper Ward of 
Lanarkshire or Clydesdale. The links that bind these sections 
of the Clydesdale breed to the fountain-head are clearly defined 
and historically sure. 



1922.] 



The Clydesdale. 



693 



A very famous sire which nourished about the vear 1840 was 
Clyde, alias Glaneer 153, known popularly as "Fulton's rup- 
tured horse." An old farmer who remembered him well told 
the writer that he was a " mickle, strong horse." Seven 
stallions got by him are recorded and all of them were similarly 
impressive and prepotent sires. Their influence was wide- 
spread. Other notable fountain heads were Eob Roy 714, Old 
Clyde 574, Largs Jock 444., Old Farmer 576 and Pringie's 
Young Clyde 949. These can all be connected with Lanark- 
shire, but cannot be proved to have been connected with the 
Lampits mare, or the Lochlyoch race. In areas widely apart 
they left an indelible impression and were largely instrumental 
in making the Clydesdale the Scottish breed of draught horses. 

Breeding Influences. — Two agencies exerted a powerful in- 
fluence in developing the breed — the inauguration of competi- 
tive exhibitions by the Highland and Agricultural Society in 
the early twenties of last century; and the system of hiring 
stallions by district societies, of the existence of which there 
is evidence as early as 1832. By the former a standard of 
merit was set up and by the latter the best horses were dis- 
tributed through the countrv. These two influences continue 
to be exerted to a surprising extent. At the beginning of 
1919, 180 stallions had been hired for service in 1920, 76 had 
been hired for 1921, 10 had been hired for 1922 and 3 had been 
hired for 1923. With such a system of hiring generally in 
operation, it is not difficult to understand how one type of horse 
came to be developed through the whole Clydesdale area, 
which mav be said in a general wav to embrace the four 
northern counties of England and the whole of Scotland. 

Standard and Type. — A very marked change has taken place 
in the type aimed at by breeders of Clydesdales. The general 
principles, which have never been departed from, are that 
wearing properties of feet and legs are of supreme importance 
in the draught horse, and that quality, by which is meant the 
capacity for wearing well, is of greater importance than mere 
weight avoirdupois. Experience has shown that the horse 
which wears longest may be and usually is the horse which 
takes the longest time to come to maturity. While these two 
general principles have never been departed from, a consider- 
able modification of emphasis has taken place from time to 
time. The Clydesdale of the first quarter of the nineteenth 
century was a handsome well-built animal, with finely carried 
head and neck, high at the withers, with sound open hoof- 



694 



The Clydesdale. 



rNov., 

l_ 7 



heads, but not carrying much hair on the legs and altogether 
minus the modern "spat "as it is called — the fringe of hair 
spread over the hoof-heads — and giving the impression of great 
obliqueness of pastern joint and fetlock. 

During the dominance of the " Euptured Horse " (153) and 
his seven sons — a heavier, more massive, and more lorrv-like 
type was fancied and bred. The soundness of the feet and the 
open hoof-head were insisted on, but there was more hair on 
the legs, the obliqueness of the pasterns was not so much 
insisted on, and on the whole the horse fancied was decidedly 
a " big " horse. 

In the early sixties came the demand for better action and 
greater gaiety, of carriage and movement. The dominant in- 
fluence in creating this demand was Sir Walter Scott 797 
which won supreme honours at the Royal International Show 
at Battersea in 1862. This type and the demand for style and 
action continued to maintain an ascendancy all through the 
long career of Prince of Wales 673 (1866-1888), a grandson of 
Sir Walter Scott 797. 

In 1872 one of the greatest sires the breed has ever known, 
Darnley 222 (1872-1886), was foaled at Keir. His dam and 
the dam of Prince of Wales 673 were both celebrated showyard 
mares, and both were by Samson 741, one of the most im- 
pressive of Clydesdale sires. The produce of Prince of Wales 
673 and Darnley 222 blended well, in so far as producing show- 
yard winners is concerned, but a general lack of size and 
weight was noticeable. The orthodox blend was Prince of 
Wales and a Darnley filly, and for many a day Prince of Albion 
6178, bred on these lines, held the record, having been sold 
when a two-year-old stallion for £3,000. Another, Prince 
Alexander 8899, bred on similar lines, held the record for a 
foal, having been sold for £1,200. He was champion at the 
Highland and Agricultural Society's Show at Dundee, in 1890, 
when a yearling colt, beating amongst others Prince of Albion 
6178. What this blend demonstrated was the incomparable 
merit of daughters of Darnley 222 as dams of prize stock. 

Yet something almost akin to accident demonstrated that the 
influence of Darnley was to be much greater through his sons. 
This was seen when his grandson Sir Everard 5353 appeared. 
His sire was Top Gallant 1850 (1877-1886) a big son of Darnley 
with incomparable feet, and his dam was by a son of Prince 
of Wales 673. Sir Everard proved a most valuable sire. He 
was himself a weighty, big horse, and exhibited the balance of 



1922.] 



The Clydesdale. 



695 



quality and weight which was in risk of being lost when the 
Prince of Wales-Darnley cross was in the ascendant. Since the 
days of Sir Everard 5353 (1885-1898) his race has dominated 
the breed. He sired Baron's Pride 9122 (1890-1912) the 
soundest and best wearing sire the breed has produced. His 
feet and limbs were perfect in respect of wearing qualities. His 
limbs in the last vears of his life were as " sweet " and clean 
and the bone as sharply defined- as when he was champion at the 
Highland and Agricultural Society's Show at Aberdeen, in 
1894. The Clydesdale breed in so far as the showyard is con- 
cerned is dominated by the influence of Baron's Pride. His 
grandson Dunure Footprint 15203 is the most prolific known 
sire of the breed. His service fees for several seasons have been 
£60 payable at service, and £60 additional for every mare left 
in foal. 

On the Prince of Wales 673 side the most outstanding 
modern sire has easily been Hiawatha 10067 (1892-1915). He 
was got by Prince Eobert 7135, a son of Prince of Wales 673, 
and bears the record of being the most successful show horse 
of the breed. His daughters mated very successfully with 
Baron's Pride 9122 and Baron's Pride's daughters mated very 
successfully with Hiawatha 10067, but while Baron's Pride 
was the ideal typical Clydesdale with faultless feet and limbs 
and well ribbed, with a beautifully set head and neck and high 
withers, albeit rather light in the thighs and lacking muscular 
development there, Hiawatha 10067 set a new type in Clydes- 
dales. He was himself a " tall " horse. He came very slowly 
to maturity and always appeared a little "leggy." He had 
perfectly formed hind limbs and bones which looked like ivory. 
No one of the older race of Clvdesdale fanciers or owners, that 
is the men of about 1850-1900 ever thought of speaking of a 

tall ' ' horse ; their ideal was ever the ' - thick ' ' horse — big 
when lying down. Hiawatha made the " tall " horse popular, 
and to-day a slowly-maturing colt with broad, flat, thin, clean 
bones is not found fault with, even should he be a little " on 
the leg." Granted he is out of the short-legged, deep-ribbed, 
sound-footed and sound-limbed type of mare, he is more 
favoured by judges than the short-legged thick colt which is 
pronounced "old fashioned." 

Popularity of the Breed.— The Clydesdale has for well nigh 
a century been in demand for export. Hence his prominence 
especially in Australia, New Zealand and Canada. During 
the years from 1850 to about 1880 a fair number of the best 



696 



The Clydesdale. 



rNow, 



stallions and mares were annually shipped to those countries. 
In 1880 a big trade in second-class animals began with the 
United States and lasted for about a dozen years. It was an 
unfortunate trade, as too many animals of secondary merit 
were shipped. During the years immediately preceding 1914 
there w T as an extraordinary export trade which reached high- 
water mark in 1911, when the number of export certificates 
issued by the Breed Society was 1,617. Since the War exports 
have been few in number, but have included some of the 
best stallions and mares of their years, including Caw 7 dor Cup 
Champion winners. 

The Clydesdale holds the record among draught breeds for 
high prices realised at public auction. Baron of Buchlyvie 
11263 was sold in this way in Ayr market in December, 1911, 
for £9,500; in October, 1915, his son Bonnie Buchlyvie 14037 
was sold at the Seaham dispersion for 5,000 guineas; the brood 
mare Dunure Glad Eye 39839 was sold at Dene House disper- 
sion sale in April, 1919, for 1,850 guineas; at the Lanark sales 
in October, 1920, the yearling colt Record 20157 w r as sold for 
£3,400. The following are some of the outstanding averages 
realised at auction sales during the better part of the past half 
century : — 



Date. 


Place. 


Number. 


Average 


Price. 


20th October, 1876 


Knockdon - 


- 22 head 


£209 


15 


2 


11th October, 1906 


Blacon Point (dispersion) 


- 14 females 


£206 


10 


6 


7th October, 1915 


Seaham Harbour (dispersion 


) 100 head 


£211 


17 


4 




(both sexes and 










all ages) 








6th March, 1917 


Dunure Mains (draft) - 


- 47 head 


£323 


18 


8 


5th March, 1918 


Banks Stud (dispersion) 


- 25 stallions 


£557 


19 


5 


14th January, 1919 


Dunure Mains (dispersion) 


- 13 stallions 


£1,676 


7 


4 


8th October, 1920 


Boquhan (dispersion) - 


- 40 (mostly 


£317 


8 


3 




females) 








11th October, 1920 


Dunure Mains (dispersion) 


- 28 head 


£1,312 


2 


1 


13th October, 1920 


Farleton (dispersion) - 


19 (mostly 


£408 


13 


8 



females) 



****** 



1922.] 



Labour on the Farm. 



697 



LABOUR ON THE FARM. 

A. G. Kilston. B.A., B.Sc. (LoncL), D.Sc. (Leeds), 
and J. S. Simpson, B.Sc, 
The University, Leeds. 

Since the year 1908 a large amount of statistical data bearing 
on the various aspects of farm costs has been accumulated in the 
Department of Agriculture of the University of Leeds, and a 
systematic investigation of the records may be interesting and 
instructive. More or less complete records on at least eight 
farms can be traced back continuously to 1912, while at the 
present time 52 Yorkshire farms of varied size and type are 
being costed through the Department. 

During the past year the bill for manual labour has been 
found to varv on the different farms from £1 8s. 6d. to 

Ml 

£17 2s. 4d. per acre. Such wide limits naturally lead one to ask 
what are the varying factors which have contributed to bring 
about such widely varying labour costs in the same year? Was 
the one farm being farmed efficiently? Was the management 
justified by results in so large an outlay on manual labour on 
the other farm? How much per acre ought a farmer at the 
present time to be spending on labour? 

During the time that the investigations have been carried out, 
the labour bill on one small holding of 16 acres has been found 
to increase from .£52 in the year ending 31st December, 1912, to 
£'289 18s. Id. for the year ending 31st December, 1921. Was 
labour in pre-war days, or in the early days of the War, before 
the institution of the Agricultural Wages Board, getting its 
fair share of the output from the farm? Have the awards of 
the Wages Board, and the subsequent recommendations of the 
Conciliation Committees with regard to labour, been reasonable 
and fair, or is labour at the present time getting an undue share 
of the net returns from the farms? The records available can 
suggest answers to practically all of these questions. 

Influence of the War on the Labour Bill. — In Table I are 
shown the yearly variations in the labour bills of 4 different 
types of Yorkshire farms, these variations being typical of those 
found on the other farms of which available records date back to 
pre-war days. II will be seen that with the outbreak of the War 
and the subsequent rise in prices the wages bills on the farms 
remained with very few exceptions fairly stationary until in 



698 



Labour on the Farm. 



[Nov., 



1917-18 the institution of the Wages Board and the successive 
Wages Board Orders tended to raise them higher and higher. 
In each case the maximum was reached in the year 1920-21, and 
with the disappearance of the Wages Board, and the subsequent 
advent of the Conciliation Committees, there has been a slight 
drop, though the wages bill in 1921-22 in no case met with by 
the authors fell to the level of the year 1919-20. 

Table I. 

Annual Variations in the Labour Bill of 4 Yorkshire Farms. 



Yea r 


H. 


CM. 


D. 


M. 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


1911-12 


52 


786 


324 


965 


1912-18 


74 


796 


355 


972 


1913-14 


83 


829 


417 


971 


1914-15 


77 


825 


584 


911 


1915-16 


98 


808 


570 


1,153 


1916-17 


99 


758 


604 


.. 1,274 


1917-18 


102 


834 


664 


1,694 


1918-19 


224 


... 1,336 


692 


.. 1,755 


1919-20 


... 279 


... 1,650 


991 


.. 2,292 


1920-21 


... 309 


... 2,118 


.. 1,254 


.. 2,632 


1921-22 


... 290 


... 1.841 


.. 1,107 


2,487 



In Fig. 1 the annual variations of the labour bills of these 
farms are plotted for the sake of comparison on an acreage basis. 

FARM H. is a small holding of 16 acres, on the outskirts of 
an industrial town, and is given up entirely to milk production. 




t<fn. f}/3. /<?/<-. fyf. '<f>j. "t'». "i'9- 

Fig. 1. — Annual Variations in Labour Bill per acre. 



1922.] 



Labour on the Farm. 



699 



CM. is a mixed farm of just over BOO acres, specialises in 
pigs, but breeds and rears cattle and produces milk, the milk 
being mainly converted into butter and cheese. Some of the 
land is good potato land, though good corn crops, particularly 
ttheat, can be grown. 



25a 



200. 



/5a 







r— 






I 


I 


k 














\ f 

i 
















1 / 

































// 

/ 


\ 










\ T / 


f—f 

J 


1 — v - 
\ 












1/ 




\ 












A 




\j 












• 

/ 
















• 

/ 

♦ 
















•f 

1 




_ 








/ 














• 


—f— 






i 










f- 














/ 



























































2S0 



Z5C 



2 go 



/5a 



Uoa 



I9n. 

KEY: 



1915 191 i 1917. 1312. 1913. 

— — — — Rise m Cost of L/v/nc. 



.'520. 



I9U 



Rise, in Fahm V/accs 



Fig. 2. — Correlation of Rise of Farm Wnges with Cost of Living, 

D. is a mixed faim of just over 200 acres, which started to 
develop the milk industry at the outbreak of the War. It could 
be looked upon as barley rather than wheat land. 

M. is a farm of 786 acres, two-thirds of which is grass, mainly 
sheep land, the arable land being light and given up largely to 
potatoes and rye. 



700 



Labour on the Fakm. 



As far as Yorkshire as a whole is concerned, the Wages Board 
awards may be briefly summarised as follows : — 

Date of 
Award 

12th Sept., 1918 

21st Oct., 1918 

6th Oct., 1919 

19th April, 1920 



23rd Oct., 1920 



For 

Adult Labourer 
Stockmen 
Adult Labourer 
All Classes 



Minimum wage 
per week 

3 os. 

41s. 

41s. 

45s. 

49s. 



Hours 
Summer Winter 

54 51 

Customary Hours. 

50 48 

50 48 

50 48 



£2200 

£ 2.000 



"foTAL LaBQUR Bill 



jffQOO 



OO 




zzoo. 



£/S"00 



'OO. 



1 9: a. toll*. t»is. 1917. (91 1 1919. /9X0. /9Zt. 



Cross Income.. 




3000. 



Zuoo. 



(9U- *9>5. t*)it>. I9lf. '9/9. /9&SK i9*l. /9Zi- 



Percentage, Qrqss Income taken ay Laqou* 




/9/Z /e/3 I9'l~ /0/5 Mb fOiJ 7$IS /2/9 tS20 t$Zl. /9ZI- 

F IGi 3.— Relation of Cost of Labour to Gross Income. 



1922.] 



Labour on the Farm. 



701 



The recommendations of the Conciliation Committee as from 1st 
October, 1921, for a 50-hour week, have been for the East 
Biding, 39s. to 26th November, 1921 ; for the North Riding, 40s. 
to 26th December, 1921, and 37s. to 1st March, 1922. The 
average at the present time is approximately 35s. 

In pre-war days, the average farm labourer would receive as 
wages approximately 20s. per week, and the Wages Board award 
of 23rd October, 1920, theoretically increased the wages bill on 
the farm to approximately two and a half times its pre-war 
figure; but the limitation of hours and the necessity of employ- 
ing more hands or the working of overtime by the existing staff 
actually increased the wages bill in most cases to three and in 
some cases to four times its pre-war figure. 

On the four farms mentioned above, the actual effect of the 
shorter hours worked as a result of the operation of Wages Board 
Orders is shown by the following table : — 



Table II. 
Number of Men Employed. 



Farm 


Year ending April 6th 




1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


H. 
M 
D. 

CM. 


1 
16 

4 
11 


1 

16 
4 
11 


1 

16 
5 
11 


1 

16 
5 
11 


1 

16 
5 
11 


1 

16 
6 
10 


1 
17 

6 
10 


1 
17 

6 
11 


2 
15 

6 
12 


2 
14 

7 
14 


2 
14 

7 
14 




32 


32 


33 


33 


33 


33 


34 


35 


35 


37 


37 



It will be seen that the number of men employed on the 1,300 
acres concerned rises from 32 in pre-war days to 37 in 1921 — 
an increase of nearly 16 per cent. Expressed differently, it 
would seem that the reduction in hours worked necessitated the 
employment of 7 men in 1921 to accomplish the work performed 
by 6 men in 1912. 

The wisdom of the awards can be judged in one of two ways. 
It may be claimed that wages should rise in proportion to the 
cost of living, or, alternatively, that the amount paid in wages 
by any industry must be finally determined by what the industry 
can afford to pay. 

It is interesting therefore to compare the wages actually paid 
on the various farms when viewed from both these standpoints. 

Comparison of Wages with Cost of Living. — In Fig. 2, an 
attempt has been made to correlate the wages actually paid 
on all the farms whose records go back to 1914, with the varia- 



702 



Labour on the Farm. 



[Nov., 



tions in the cost of living. The wages bills on all the 12 farms 
have been totalled each year, and reduced to a figure which 
corresponds to a standard of 100 for the year ending 31st March, 
1914. The comparative costs of living have been deduced from 
the index figures published each month in the Labour Gazette, 
taking the prices prevailing in 1914 as 100, and adding to that 
each year the average percentage increase during the period 
1st April — 31st March. 

Table III. 

Comparison of Wages Bills in Yorkshire with Cost of Living. 



Year 


Comparative 
Wages Bill 


Comparative 
Cost of Living 


1918-14 


100 


100 


1914-15 


104 


104 


1915-16 


114 


129 


1916-17 


119 


154 


1917-18 


143 


182 


1918-19 


174 


200 


1919-20 


227 


218 


1920-21 


275 


255 


1921-22 


2 49 


203 



It will be seen that up to 31st March, 1915, the slight 
increase in wages on the farms in question coincided 
exactly with the slight increase in the cost of living. From then 
up to the end of March, 1918, the cost of living rose much more 
quickly than the rise in wages, by which time wages had risen 
43 and the cost of living 82 per cent. Judging from this stand- 
point, the Wages Board was not appointed a day too soon. 

From then up to March, 1921, farm wages rose more rapidly 
than the cost of living, the two curves crossing approximately in 
January, 1920. 

When the Wages Board was dissolved in 1921, and Concilia- 
tion Committees were set up under the Corn Production Acts 
(Repeal) Act, 1921, the percentage increase in the wages paid 
on the farms was approximately 20 points above the percentage 
increase in the cost of living. By April, 1922, when the cost 
of living was falling more quickly than the wages on the farms, 
there was a difference of 45 points in favour of the increased 
wages. 

It would appear therefore that while the Wages Board Awards 
up to April, 1920, were more than justified, the last increase in 
October, 1920, could hardly be looked upon in the same light. 
It is, however, only right to bear in mind that what the farm 
worker, looking at the matter from his own point of view, might 



» 



1922.] 



Labour on the Farm. 



703 



consider he had lost up to January, 1920, owing to the failure 
of the rise in his wages to keep pace with the rise in the cost 
of living, would only be recovered by April, 1923, provided his 
wages and the cost of living remained stationary at the present 
level, or both fell in the ratios in which they have fallen since 
the appointment of the Conciliation Committees. 

According to the index figures as published in the Labour 
Gazette, the cost of living reached its maximum in November, 
1920, when it stood at 176 points above the pre-war level. Since 
then it has dropped fairly consistently until by April, 1922, it 
stood only at 88 points above the standard. It is interesting 
therefore to consider how closely the rise and subsequent fall in 
agricultural wages agreed with those which obtained in other 
industries. 

Rise of Agricultural Wages Compared with those of other 
Industries. — Briefly it may be stated that as compared with those 
that have obtained in other industries agricultural wages were 
slow to rise, and have again been slow to fall, that while as far 
as can be traced the maximum increase of wages in the agricul- 
tural industrv has onlv been exceeded bv the maximum increases 
in the wages of the building trades labourers and railway 
workers, the increases which prevailed in March, 1922, were 
onlv approached by those which prevailed in the printing trade ; 
and that while at that time agricultural wages stood at 148 per 
cent, above the pre-war level, wages in the woollen trade were 
95 per cent., in the cotton trade 61 per cent., and miners' wages 
only 45 per cent., above pre-war level. 

While in an article of this description it is impossible to quote 
the wages variations in all the 24 industries, it appears that 
from the agricultural worker's point of view the rise in agricul- 
tural wages with the rise in the cost of living will bear comparison 
with the increase granted in any other industry. 

In the comparisons which have been made it must, however, 
be remembered that the figures relate to percentage increases 
and not to actual increases. Owing, then, to the low pre-war 
rate of farm wages, any actual increase obtained is reflected as 
a greater percentage increase than would be the case in other 
industries with a higher pre-war rate of pay. 

It has already been suggested that while from the labour 
point of view wages should be determined by the cost of living, 
yet the employer demands that they should be determined by 
what the industry can afford to pay. An estimate of this latter 



704 



Labour on the Farm. 



[Nov., 



sum can be obtained by a study of the varying Gross Income 
derived from the industry on certain farms, or, better still, from 
a study of the varying Net Output. 

Relation of Cost of Labour to Gross Income from Farming. — 

The graphical representation in Fig. 3 illustrates the relation 
of labour costs to gross income. 

It will be seen that on this farm of 312 acres, the wages from 
1914 to 1918 remained approximately constant, though the gross in- 
come from the farm had during that time been more than doubled. 
Up to the intervention of the Wages Board, the men were reap- 
ing no advantage from the increasing prosperity of the farm. As 
rents were remaining constant, presumably it was the farmer 
who was reaping the whole of the benefit. If this is typical of 
other farms, it looks as if in justice to the worker the Wages 
Board might with advantage have been set up at least two and 
probably two and a half years earlier. Continuing the 
curves in Fig. 3 it will be seen that the gross income derived 
from the farm reached its maximum in 1920. 

During the next year, in spite of the fact that with falling 
prices the gross income from the farm was rapidly falling, the 
successive awards of the Wages Board were steadily increasing 
the wages bill. During the last year of the series, with the 
advent of the Conciliation Committee, wages on the farm fell, 
but not at all so sharply as the fall in the gross income derived 
from the farm. On this particular farm, during the year 
1921-22, 46 per cent, of the total gross income was required to 
pay the labour bill alone. 

Looking at the bottom graph in Fig. 3, it will be seen that 
during the years 1915 to 1919, and possibly up to 1920, labour 
was apparently not getting its fair share, but that from 
1920-1922 it was certainly getting more than its share. Pro- 
vided we had taken the 1914 figures as our standard and labour 
on the farm had been prepared to accept as its share the pro- 
portion which the farm could apparently afford to pay, it would 
have received as wages in — 



1914- 15 

1915- 16 

1916- 17 

1917- 18 . 

1918- 19 

1919- 20 



1920- 21 

1921- 22 



£870 instead of £S25 actually pau 

1,340 „ „ 808 „ 

1,220 „ ., 779 „ 

1,560 „ „ 834 

1,600 ,, ., 1,336 „ „ 

2,000 „ „ 1,650 „ 



1.520 „ ., 2,118 
1,200 „ „ 1,841 



1922.] 



Labour on the Farm. 



705 



In other words labour might complain that up to 1920 it had 
received as wages £'2,300 less than what it might perhaps with 
reason have claimed as its share, but might congratulate itself 
that during the years 1920-21 and 1921-22, it had been paid 
£1,200 more than its share. 

These figures have been arrived at by a comparison of the 
wages and gross income from the farm. It is, however, fairer 
to try and get a comparison betweeen wages and net income,, or 
even net outpur, the net output being the fund available for 
payment of profits to the farmers, rent to the landlord and wages 
to the men. 

Relation of Cost of Labour to Net Output in Farming. — 

According to Orwin's figures,* which agree fairly closely with 
those we have obtained in Yorkshire, in 1913-14 labour was 
taking 33 per cent, of the net output, the farmer 45 per cent. : 
in 1916-17 labour took 27 per cent., the farmer 61 per cent. 
In 1919-20 on 11 Yorkshire farms of 2,738 acres, on which the 
net output averaged £9 4s. 7d. per acre, labour took 49 per 
cent. : in 1920-21, on 19 Yorkshire farms of 4,471 acres, on 
which the net output was £5 12s. 2d. per acre, labour took 78 
per cent., and in 1921-22 on the 29 farms in the same county 
comprising 6,515 acres, whose full accounts are at present com- 
pleted, labour took 84 per cent, of a total net output of 
£4 4s. 9d. per acre. Judged from the standard of the net output, 
from the outbreak of the War up to 1917-18 labour was not, as 
has before been pointed out, receiving its fair share of the in- 
creased prosperity of the industry, but for the last two 
years at least it has been getting more than the industry could 
reasonably be expected to bear. 



****** 



* Journal of Royal Agricultural Society, Vol. 82, p. 155. 



c 



706 Ground Mineral Phosphates as Manures. [Nov., 



GROUND MINERAL PHOSPHATES 

AS MANURES. 

D. A. Gilchrist, 
Professor of Agriculture, Armstrong College, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Dr. Aitken's Experiments in Scotland, 1879-1889. — Trials 

of ground mineral phosphates were made for many years at the 
Pumpherston Agricultural Experimental Station of the High- 
land and Agricultural Society of Scotland, by the late Dr. 
Aitken, Chemist to the Society. The results are now of 
special interest when ground mineral phosphates are again 
being offered to farmers in considerable quantity. Dr. Aitken 
conducted trials for seven years previous to 1886, and found 
these ground mineral phosphates very erratic in their action. 
He concluded* that their utility varied with the softness of the 
mineral, and with the fineness of grinding. The phosphates 
which produced the best results were Carolina land phosphaie, 
Belgian phosphate, and Aruba phosphate, but these were also 
the finest ground. He reported that they produced better 
results in wet than in dry seasons, and that they acted best 
on land rich in organic matter. He also found that phosphatic 
guano and precipitated phosphate acted better than ground 
mineral phosphates, but that bone ash did not act so well. He 
concluded that superphosphate was the most reliable kind of 
phosphate for general use, but that with a more thorough 
system of grinding the dissolving of phosphates might be 
dispensed with. 

In the following year Dr. Aitken recorded! most valuable 
results on the value of mineral phosphates of different degrees 
of fineness. In 1886 he conducted at Pumpherston trials of basic 
slag containing 40 per cent, phosphates (then a new manure), 
and the following ground mineral phosphates : — Curacao, 87 per 
cent, phosphates; Canadian, 59 per cent, phosphates; Carolina, 
57 per cent, phosphates; and Belgian, 40 per cent, phosphates; 
and also of superphosphate, 28 per cent, soluble phosphates. 
The crop was turnips and the plots were one-twentieth of an 
acre in area. In all cases the plots received (per acre) 100 lb. 
of sulphate of ammonia and 60 lb. of sulphate of potash (50 
per cent, potash). He found, although all the ground mineral 



* Transactions of! t lie Highland and Agricultural Society, 1X8>>, p. 351. 
t t)o. do. * , 1887, p. 245.' 



1922.] Ground Mineral Phosphates as Manures. 707 



phosphates appeared to be finely ground, that less than 50 per 
cent, of each would pass through a sieve of 120 wires to the 
linear inch. He therefore had all these mineral phosphates 
sifted, and tested each of them as 

(1) Sifted — all passing through a No. 120 sieve, and 

(2) Unsifted — from 40-50 per cent, passing through a 
• No. 120 sieve. 

The same amount of phosphoric acid (about 100 lb. an acre) 
was applied of each, so that the quantities per acre were : 
Superphosphate. 800 lb. ; Basic Slag, 560 lb. ; Curacao, 260 lb. ; 
-Canadian, 360 lb.; Carolina, 400 lb.; and Belgian, 560 lb. 

On the average the weights per acre of the turnips were : — 

Tons. Cwt. 

No phosphates ... ... ... ... ... 9 9 

Superphosphate ... ... ... ... ... 11 9 

Basic slag ... ... ... ... ... ... 11 13 

Mineral phosphates sifted ... ... ... ... 11 17 

Mineral phosphates unsifted ... ... ... 10 18 

He summed up the results thus : — 

"1. Ground mineral phosphates are the more active the more finely they 
are ground. 

"2. When ground as finely as to pass through a sieve of 120 wires per 
linear inch, they are nearly as active as superphosphates. 

"3. The nature of the phosphate is of much less importance than the fine- 
ness to which it is ground. 

" 4. Basi • slag is at pr. sent 188G) the most finely ground and the cheapest 
phosphate on the market." 

Dr. Aitken conducted such trials for many years, not only 
at Pumpherston, but on farms in all parts of Scotland. Many 
of his trials with ground mineral phosphates were disappoint- 
ing and he believed that the lack of fineness of grinding caused 
a number of the poorer results. The advent of basic slag, the 
good results it gave, the fact that it could "be readily obtained 
ground to a standard fineness, and also that phosphates could 
then be obtained at a cheaper cost per unit in this than in 
ground mineral phosphates, all tended to discourage further 
experimental work with ground mineral phosphates at that 
time. 

In 1889 Dr. Aitken stated that a unit of phosphate of lime 
cost Is. Id. in mineral phosphates and only lid. in basic slag. 
In 1896 he put their relative costs at 8Jd. and Is. 2Jd. Since 
that time the phosphates have usually been at a lower cost per 
unit in mineral phosphates than in basic slag. There were 
:for some time, however, abundant supplies of basic slag, and 

c 2 



708 Ground Mineral Phosphates as Manures. [Nov., 



very little experimental work was "done with mineral phos- 
phates. Quotations for most grades of basic slag are now about 
2s. 5d. per unit of phosphate of lime at the farmer's nearest 
station, whereas in the north of England finely ground North 
African phosphates, containing 60 per cent, of phosphate of 
lime, and guaranteed that 80 per cent, will pass through a 
No. 120 sieve (14,400 holes to the square inch) are now offered 
at about Is. 4d. a unit at the farmer's nearest station. The 
great alteration in the relative commercial values of these two 
phosphatic manures makes the late Dr. Aitken's results now 
of great interest and value, and especial attention should be 
given to his advice, repeatedly and emphatically made, that 
mineral phosphates applied to the land are of use as manures 
only when they are ground to the finest flour. 

Trials at Cockle Park, 1911-14. — Trials of various phosphatic 

manures for three years' seeds hay were made at Cockle Park 
in the three years, 1911-1913, 10 cwt. per acre of high-grade 
basic slag, or an equivalent amount of phosphates in other 
dressings, being applied when the corn crop was harvested. 
On the average of the three following vears the amounts of 
hay produced per acre were: — untreated plot, 33} cwt.; basic 
slag plots, 38} cwt. to 41} cwt.; bone meal, 40} cwt.; Tunisian 
rock phosphate, 37 J cwt. ; and Belgian rock phosphate, 40} cwt. 

Similar trials were made for the three years, 1912-14, when 
the average crops of hay per acre for the three years were : — 
No dressing, 33} cwt. ; basic slag plots, 39 J to 41 cwt. ; bone 
meal, 37 cwt. ; Tunisian phosphate, 89 cwt. ; and Belgian rock 
phosphate, 40 cwt. (See Guide to Cockle Park, 1917.) 

These and other trials showed that ground mineral phos- 
phates gave results practically equivalent to basic slag. 

Trials at Wylam-on-Tyne, 1914. — Trials of mineral phos- 
phates on the park at Close House, Wylam-on-Tyne, were 
commenced in March, 1914, when basic slag, Belgian phos- 
phate and Algerian phosphate were applied to different areas of 
the park, 200 lb. an acre of phosphoric acid being applied in 
each case. A careful inspection 2 J years later showed on all 
the treated areas a marked improvement due to these manures. 
The pasture on the untreated area was valued at 25s. an acre 
and that on the remaining areas at 45s. an acre. The results 
showed that when mineral phosphates are as finely ground as 
basic slag the phosphates they contain may be about equally 
effective. 



1922.] Ground Mineral Phosphates as Manures. 709 



Trials in Essex, 1915. — Dr. Kobertson commenced trials in 
Essex in 1915 with mineral phosphates and basic slag. The 
results of these trials are given in the September issue of 
this Journal, page 519. He concludes that as a source of phos- 
phate for the manuring of grass land, the value of mineral 
phosphates is very close to that of high-grade basic slag, and 
that, of the various types of rock phosphate, Gafsa (a North 
African phosphate) seems to be the most suitable for direct 
application. 

Trials at Cockle Park, 1917.— In October, 1917, 11.1 cwt. 
per acre of high-grade basic slag and 8.3 cwt. per acre of 
Tunisian phosphate were applied to small plots of old pasture 
of a poor character at Cockle Park. Each dressing contained 
200 lb. phosphoric acid. The dressings were repeated in 
October, 1920. A recent inspection of these plots shows a 
marked improvement over the untreated plots, and it is dim- 
cult by observation to say which have been most effective. 

It is again urged that the greatest importance should be 
attached to fineness of grinding. The eye is not a safe test in 
judging of this fineness, so that samples should be obtained 
before purchase for examination and guarantees as to fineness 
of grinding. It is usual to guarantee that 80 per cent, of basic 
slag and other finely ground mineral phosphates will pass 
through a No. 100 sieve, containing 10,000 holes per square 
inch. It is now possible to obtain these mineral phosphates, 
with a guarantee that 80 per cent, will pass through a No. 120 
sieve, containing 14,400 holes per square inch. 

Trials at Cockle Park, 1922. — An important trial of phosphatic 
manures on poor grass land was commenced at Cockle Park in 
the North Field, Paradise, in February, 1922. Alongside the 
other dressings North African phosphates were applied to two 
plots at the rate of 6 cwt. per acre. This contained 63 per 
cent, of phosphates. In one case the fineness of grinding was 
79 per cent, through a No. 100 sieve, and in the other 83 per 
cent, through a No. 120 sieve. The results already indicate 
that the more finely ground phosphate has developed 
clover and pasture plants more effectively than the other, and 
also that, so far, the results of this finely ground phosphate 
are quite comparable with that of high-grade basic slag. 

The following table shows the approximate costs of high- 
grade basic slag and of finely ground North African phosphate, 
as offered to farmers in the north of .England in September 
last : — 



710 Planning and Construction of Farm Buildings. [Nov., 



Nineteen 

p, i Price * Price units />er Cost 

* 6 ' per ton. per unit, acre in f per acre. 
per cent. s. d. s. d. cwt. s. d. 

Basic slag 38 91 2 4f 10 45 6 

ground North African 

phosphate 60 80 1 4 6^ 25 4 

* Carriage paid to farmers' stations, 
f Containing m arly 200 lb. phosphoric acid. 

The basic slag is guaranteed that 80 per cent, will pass 
through a No. 100 sieve, containing 10,000 holes to the square 
inch; and the North African phosphate that 80 per cent, will 
pass through a No. 120 sieve containing 14,400 holes to the 
square inch. 

[In an early issue of the Journal it is proposed to publish an 
article on Naura phosphate.] 

5jC 5jC 



THE PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION 
OF FARM BUILDINGS: 

A MODERN HOMESTEAD. 

Major H. P. G. Maule, D.S.O., M.C., F.B.I.B.A., 
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. 

The planning and construction of a completely modern home- 
stead is at the present time by no means an easy problem, and 
the publication of the plans for the new farm buildings at 
Seale-Hayne Agricultural College may be of interest, particu- 
larly as the scheme presents at least one departure from the 
accepted normal type. 

The Traditional Type. — Since the middle of the last century, 
although variations may be found in detail in different parts 
of the country, the planning of the buildings of the larger 
farms in England has followed a more or less definite type. 

The generally accepted principle has been to place what 
may be termed the administrative building, consisting of the 
accommodation for food storage and preparation and the accom- 
panying necessary machinery, in a two-storied building on the 
north side of the steading, with the buildings containing stock 
arranged at right angles projecting southwards in two or more 
arms. The spaces between these ranges or wings are used as 
covered or open stock yards in which the main bulk of the 
farmyard manure is produced and kept until ready for distribu- 
tion. Frequently, on the larger and more extensive holdings, 
this arrangement is duplicated. 



1922.] Planning and Construction of Farm Buildings. 711 



Broadly speaking, where completely new buildings have been 
erected, the main objects have been to facilitate the economical 
distribution of prepared food stuffs and to provide shelter and 
accommodation for animals in the most concentrated manner. 

In many cases the buildings have been elaborate and costly 
in construction, conveying the idea that the then methods of 
farming were fixed for all time and that " adaptability " was 
a word undreamed of. 

Present Day Conditions. — Before describing the accompany- 
ing plans it may be wise to analyse briefly a few of the more 
pressing problems of the moment, pertaining to farm design 
and construction, as applied to larger holdings. 

Leaving the specialist out of account, it is probably correct 
to say that for general farming purposes the primary need is 
sound and economic planning designed in every possible way 
to limit capital expenditure, to cheapen production by 
ease and economy of labour and economy in annual mainten- 
ance, while in addition to these there is an ever-growing- 
demand to find the best possible solution for the hygienic 
well-being and improvement of stock of all kinds and at the 
same time to increase production. 

Another important factor is the demand for the production 
of clean milk, which in turn compels action of a more or less 
restrictive character to achieve the end in view. 

In addition to these facts, there is the almost daily increas- 
ing importance of scientific research applied to every branch 
of husbandry, and it is therefore evident that the whole busi- 
ness of farming is passing through an exceptional period of 
transition. If these facts are admitted, it is all-important for 
the farm architect to keep an open mind, to v/atch for any 
signs of new ideas and methods designed to meet the problems 
of the moment, or to forestall the advent of those to come in 
the near future. 

It is seriously suggested that the proper planning of farm 
buildings offers to the designer at least as many problems in 
arrangement and construction, albeit the latter may be of 
simple type, as any other scientific or commercial undertaking, 
but with one very important addition. 

In most building undertakings of a commercial character 
there are two chief factors : (1) The efficiencv, health and 
comfort of the human beings employed in the business, and 
(2) the convenience and efficiency of the building for its imme- 
diate purpose. In the planning of farm buildings we have 



712 Planning and Construction of Farm Buildings. [Nov., 



in addition the very vital problem of the health and well-being 
of various kinds of animals living* under artificial conditions. 

Our method of research into this latter problem is almost 
entirely empirical, and the best results are only attained by 
the somewhat crude method of trial and error and by examin- 
ing into the causes of repeated failure or success. 

It is true that a science of animal hygiene is being gradually 
built up, but in actual practice it is frequently found that the 
most elaborately planned and constructed buildings, where 
everv care has been taken to give effect to current ideas, have 
failed to give the best results hoped for, while some simple and j 
elementary arrangement answers all purposes. 





jj jj <JaRT Srdb 
CARTS Sjj jj jj CAjRTS &j 

wacconIs "ij v^ccois 



pr? 



IMPLEM- OPEN | / 

ENTS PHED! / 

i / 




RO AO 



FORSYTH & MAl'LE FFfURA. 
ARCHITECTS. 

309 OXFORD STREET. W. 



Fig. ]. — Plan of Farm Building.*, Newtown Farm, Lymington. 



1922.] Planning and Construction of Farm Buildings. 



713 



With the economic stringency of the present time and the 
necessity for an improved return on capital, it is obvious that 
the line of attack must be one which embraces cheap construc- 
tion and at the same time allows of adaptability for future 
needs and improvements. 

As has been said before in these articles any departure from 
accepted principles should be watched with interest, and, if 
found successful in practice, will form the basis for future 
development. 




10 o 



IO 



20 



SCALE OF FEET. 

30 40 50 feO TO 



S><3 



FlG. 2.— Original plan of Farm Buildings. Seale-Hayne Agricultural College. 

A Traditional Plan, 1903.— The first plan (Fig. 1), given for 
the purpose of illustrating the traditional type referred to 
above, is that of a farm steading in Hampshire designed and 
built in 1903. The farm contained about 300 acres, mostly 
arable, and accommodation was required for a very limited 
number of cows, provision being made for eight. The cow 
house formed the centre range with a covered yard on one 
side and an open yard on the other, but access for the cows 
was provided without necessitating the crossing of either vard. 
The distribution of fodder to each wing is simply and directly 



714 Planning & Construction of Farm Buildings. [Nov., 1922. 



arranged for from the administrative block, and some care 
was taken for the comfort of the farm workers by the provision 
of a mess room. The plan may be said to be compact and 
straightforward, but the position of the cow house between 
two stock yards should no longer be considered ideal. 

A Traditional Plan, 1914. — The second illustration (Fig. 2) 
shows the original plan for new farm buildings prepared for 
the Governors of Seale-Hayne Agricultural College, Newton 
Abbot, and is interesting as showing a distinct adherence to 
traditional type — in fact it is to all intents and purposes as 
true to accepted principle as is the earlier plan of Newtown 
farm shown in Fig. 1. Originally prepared before the War, 
nothing was actually done with regard to building until 1920, 
when the state of the existing farmstead at the Seale-Hayne 
College made a reconstruction imperative. 

A review of the then situation, however, made it clear that 
the proposed plan, though excellent in itself, maintained the 
traditional position lor the cow shed with its obvious disadvan- 
tages from the modern hygienic standpoint. Further, the plan 
did not lend itself well to future extensions or modifications 
in farming practice and was considered hardly sufficiently 
adaptable for modern scientific and experimental farming. 

A New Type. — The third illustration shows the general lay- 
out plan of the new buildings as finally approved by the 
Governors and passed by the Ministry of Agriculture. It 
should be mentioned that the site is an exceptionally difficult 
one owing to the uneven nature of the ground, the character 
of the approaches, and the position of existing buildings, such 
as the dairy and College workshop already erected in 1914. 

In view of future legislation with regard to the production 
of clean milk, and the intention of the Governors to keep a 
herd of dairy cows, the authorities at the Ministry of Health 
were consulted with regard to the placing and arrangement of 
the cow-house. The suggestion of the Ministry of Agriculture 
that the traditional position of the cow-house should be changed 
so that it no longer abutted upon stock and manure yards was 
welcomed, as it has long been proved that the main source 
of milk contamination is from minute particles of manure, 
from which it follows that proximity to a manure yard or pit 
must of necessitv increase the risk of contamination. It is 
noteworthy that this departure from the normal and accepted 
type was decided upon on its own merits and was not due in 
any way to the falling ground or any peculiarity of site. 



716 Planning and Construction of Farm Buildings. [Nov., 



A reference to the plan (Fig. 3) shows that the main ad- 
ministrative range occupies a normal position to the north, 
with Dutch barn and silo adjacent, but the cow house is placed 
to the west, though still in immediate proximity to the mixing 
floor and silo. Space has been provided for milk weighing and 
recording and for the men's lavatory. The cows enter off a 
hard road on the south side and milk is taken out to the dairy 
by a separate exit at the west end. The chief merit of this 
arrangement is that the cow-house is no longer in an enclosed 
position but is, as far as possible, isolated from the remainder 
of the buildings, open to sun and air on three sides, and free 
from the dust and flies inseparable from stock yards. The 
disposal of manure from the cow-shed will be by a gravitation 
trolley to a covered manure pit or into the stock yard. 

The two southward projecting blocks are normally placed 
with a yard between, which it is intended to cover in when 
funds are available. 

The position of the stables stretching eastwards from the 
administrative block and the position of the cart and imple- 
ment shed were largely dictated by the nature of the site and 
the importance of obtaining an easy graded access. 

Another point worth noting is the isolated position of the 
pigsties, to which whey will be gravitated from the dairy on 
the higher ground above. 

The most careful consideration has been given to the prac- 
tical arrangements for storing, preparing, and distributing 
fodder, and a reference to the plan will show that the departure 
from type, while it has distributed the buildings in a less con- 
fined form, has not materially increased the difficulties of food 
distribution. 

It is not intended in this article to do more than draw 
attention to the general principles involved in the planning 
of these farm buildings, particularly with regard to any de- 
parture from the normal type, but it is urged that in this 
scheme the College authorities and their architect have intro- 
duced an important new principle in the relative position of 
the cow-shed to other buildings whereby the hygienic condi- 
tions requisite to assist in the production of clean milk 
must be materially better than could be the case were the 
traditional lines followed. It is also claimed that, so far as 
administration is concerned, both in feeding and cleaning, 
there is no loss but rather gain in efficiency and economy. 



1922.] 



Fruit and Vegetable Growing. 



717 



So far as the construction is concerned a permanent type 
was decided upon for various reasons, but it is suggested that 
this scheme lends itself to the method adopted by the Directors 
of the National Institute for Kesearch in Dairying — i.e., the 
administrative block, cow-house, and stables might be con- 
structed in permanent materials, and the covered yard and 
south ranges might be built of timber with a light truss roof 
construction and cheap covering material. Such a method 
would admit of easy and cheap extension to the east when the 
conditions of farming required increased room for stock. 

There can be little doubt that, at the present time when 
initial cost in construction is high and farming conditions are 
in a state of transition, adaptability is a very important factor, 
and there is therefore much to be said for building in such a 
manner that alteration and extension may be easy and cheap. 

In conclusion, the writer would like to express his thanks 
to Mr. E. F. Gutteridge, of Messrs. Gutteridge, of Southamp- 
ton, architects to the Governors of Seale-Hayne College, for 
his kindness in permitting the publication of his plans and 
for his cordial co-operation in all negotiations concerning them. 
* * * * * * 

POSSIBILITIES OF FRUIT AND 
VEGETABLE GROWING IN DURHAM 

AND CHESHIRE, 

W. G. Lobjoit, J.P., O.B.E., 

Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. 

There are some things which philosophy seems unable to 
account for. One is markets — why did they establish themselves 
just where they are? Why do many of them persist in spite of 
everything? Better alternative sites for Covent Garden Market 
have been suggested : some attempts have even been made to estab- 
lish rivals : none, however, has dethroned it. With all its incon- 
veniences and its incongruities Covent Garden Market still 
remains a magnet, attracting produce to its congested space from 
all parts of the world, and it continues to derange and obstruct 
traffic in the heart of our metropolis. 

Another problem is the areas of the country where market 
gardening thrives. Why on just this spot or that spot has a 
colony of intensive cultivators become established? Why 
just here or there have men solved the smallholding problem for 
themselves, and are thriving on holdings of smaller area than one 
would like to pronounce as possible? Superficially some reasons 



718 



[Nov., 



leap to view. Proximity to some great market; some topo- 
graphical peculiarity of site giving advantages of climate ; some 
particular geological formation of soil; some tradition of cultivation 
handed on from generations back. It is when individual cases 
are examined below these surface reasons that one is puzzled. 
Other markets as great, or greater, have not attracted similar 
colonies. Equal advantages of site can be pointed out where no 
exploitation exists — soils of attractive suitability are calling in 
many places for intensive cultivators but without response — 
traditions of cultivation are kept alive in a few, whose number 
does not increase. 

Such reflections as these came home with great force when 
the writer was recently visiting the County of Durham in connec- 
tion with the new Horticultural Station at Houghall, and the 
County of Cheshire for a Conference at Reaseheath. 

At Houghall sixteen acres are being developed for demonstrat- 
ing methods of culture and varieties of fruit and vegetables. 
Very little cultivation of this nature is done in the county, and 
an industrial population must draw its supplies of fruit and 
vegetables burdened with transport charges either from overseas 
or from other parts of the Kingdom — in either case losing the 
valuable quality of freshness. It may be said that the climate 
is atrocious or the soil unsuitable, but visits to some of the 
few growers in che county, and inspections of some of the allot- 
ments by no means support such a theory. In a village within 
twenty miles of a city in the county of Durham there is a grower 
who, on three-and-a-half acres is practising the most intensive 
culture with complete success, producing flowers, vegetables and 
fruit in profusion. He manages to get forced rhubarb, annuals, 
and bedding geraniums, tomatoes and grapes, from the same 
greenhouse in the same year. His Victorias, Czar, and Rivers 
Prolific plums were breaking down with fruit. He had heavy 
crops of Doyenne d'Ete and Fertility pears, as well as Grenadier, 
Lord Grosvenor and Bramley's Seedling apples. There was 
nothing that one could see exceptional either in site or soil. At 
another village in the same county there was a county council 
smallholding where a plot of fruit — apples, pears, and plums, 
with bush fruit and strawberries — had been planted under the 
advice of the horticultural instructor, and these were all healthy 
and thriving. One asks the question " Why has not the splendid 
market afforded by the large population in this area attracted 
more growers to benefit by it, and in so doing benefit the people 
therein as well?" It is to be hoped that Houghall will not only 



1922.] 



Fruit and Vegetable Growing. 



719 



suggest improved methods and better types to the existing 
growers, but will lead others to seize the opportunity which is 
afforded them. 

In Cheshire the surprises in store were of a different character. 
Here,, the county that in imagination had been pictured as 
stocked with mottled herds and redolent with cheese making, 
turned out to be carrying on extensive industries in intensive 
cultivation of fruit, vegetables and flowers. How many know that 
on the borders of Cheshire, overflowing into the neighbouring 
Welsh county of Flint, there is a firm of growers who cultivate 
800 acres of strawberries ; whose undertaking extends to 1.200 
acres, and is devoted to three crops, namely, potatoes, spring 
cabbages, and strawberries — an establishment revealing a stan- 
dard of cultivation, and an organisation that can challenge 
comparison anywhere. 

In another part of the county there is gathered a colony of 
intensive cultivators whose holdings are admirable examples of 
" How to make the most use of the land," where clean cultiva- 
tion, sustained fertility, and ingenious close cropping can be 
seen as well as anywhere in the world. In another district one 
finds that the soil, which is specially adapted to the growing of 
pears, has long been discovered by the local growers, although 
most of the sorts grown are of many old varieties, and the possi- 
bilities of development still await exploiting. The enterprise of 
a fruit merchant in planting out some 60 acres of top and bottom 
fruit of all kinds should, if as successful as it promises to be, give 
a stimulus to further development. In another area where some 
seaside marshes have been reclaimed by draining and hedging 
and years of intensive cultivation, there is a source of supply of 
vegetables which must be of great value to the population of 
Birkenhead and Liverpool, and one is surprised to know that 
the cultivators are nervous of the possibility of their being 
displaced by building operations. 

In the midst of such a county, with so many alert and enter- 
prising growers, and so many potentialities waiting for exploita- 
tion, the Horticultural Department of Reaseheath Agricultural 
Institute should have an important sphere of influence. There 
are still new methods that could be demonstrated. There are 
yet types of vegetables and fruit apparently unknown to the 
local growers, and especially there is a wide field of opportunity 
for demonstrating methods for combating diseases and pests. 

The opening of two such demonstration stations is an event 
of great importance, and one can only hope that other counties 
in England will be able to follow along the same road. 



720 Potato Flour Industry in Holland. [Nov., 



THE POTATO FLOUR INDUSTRY IN 

HOLLAND. 

Th. I. Mansholt, 
Inspector of Agriculture, The Hague. 

The potato flour industry in Holland developed during the 
second half of the 19th century on the " fen-colonies " in the 
northern provinces of Holland — Groningen, Drenthe, Overysel 
and Friesland — where circumstances were specially favourable 
to the extension of this industry. These districts formerly con- 
sisted of vast stretches of moorland sparsely inhabited, and 
covered with layers of peat many feet deep. Even in the 17th 
century some of these peat bogs were under cultivation, and 
since that time hundreds of canals have been dug, affording excel- 
lent means of transport by water. By the application of nitro- 
genous and potash manures the soil has been rendered specially 
suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, while fairly efficient and 
inexpensive labour has been available among the peat workers 
of the district. The development of the industry appears, in 
fact, to have been due to the combination of suitable soil, good 
canals, cheap fuel and labour, and the increasing demand for 
potato flour for different purposes. 

In 1840 the first potato flour factory was established in this 
part of the country, and since then many more factories have 
been built. After 1890 frequent disputes between the growers 
and manufacturers about the price paid for the potatoes led to 
the foundation of several factories on a co-operative basis, and 
at the present time most factories work on a co-operative basis. 

The members of these co-operative factories undertake to 
deliver quantities of potatoes proportionate to the number of 
shares they possess, and they are responsible for the debts of the 
society in the same proportion. At the end of the financial year 
every shareholder participates in the profit on the sale of flour. 

The capital necessary for building a large modern mill, produc- 
ing about 10,000 tous of flour, amounts to 1,200,000 Dutch 
guilders (about £100,000), while in addition a working capital 
of about £60,000 is required. At the present time there are 
over thirty potato flour mills in the Netherlands. The co-opera- 
tive mills orisnnallv formed the " Growers' Association of Flour- 
mills," whilst the others formed the " Association of Private 
Flour Manufacturers " These associations were founded to 



1922.] 



Potato Flour Industry in Holland. 



721 



meet the need of the manufacturers for information and mutual 
help, and had no concern with sales. The establishment in 1919 
of the Co-operative Sales' Office for Potato Flour has, however, 
changed the sy?tem of selling direct from the factory. The task 
of this organisation is to sell the flour of its members in the 
most economical and profitable way, and to assist the manufac- 
turers to solve problems concerning the improvement of methods 
of production, the increase of the output, and so forth. It is 
the opinion of the interested growers that on the whole the 
united co-operative factories now have a far greater influence 
on market prices than formerly, and this is mostly due to the 
activity of the Co-operative Sales' Office. The development of 
this office made the Growers' Association of Flourmills super- 
fluous and it has recently ceased to exist. 

While most Dutch industries are suffering greatly from the 
influence of the world crisis and the general trade depression, 
the co-operative potato flour factories have on the whole no 
reason to complain. Of late years the quantity of potatoes used 
for flour-making has been large, especially in 1919-20 and 
1920-21, and flour prices are said to have been remunerative. 
The co-operative factories especially have profited by these 
favourable circumstances, because while the other factories have 
not always been able to obtain the necessary raw material, the 
co-operative factories, owing to the supply guaranteed by their 
members, have not met with this difficult v. 

Of late years almost 70.000 acres of potatoes have been planted 
in the fen-colonies, where the average yield per acre amounts to 
8, 9 or 10 tons. Only a small part is used for direct human con- 
sumption or cattle-food., the bulk being used for flour-making 
unless a bad harvest or any other crisis in the neighbourhood 
abnormally increases the demand for direct consumption. 

All the Dutch factories together can use about 90.000 tons 
of potatoes a week, but the factories only work at their topmost 
capacity during harvest time and in the months of October, 
November and December. There are, however, a few factories 
that start in September and finish in January. During the 
remaining months of the year the material undergoes further 
manipulation, and in this way various qualities of flour are 
manufactured. 

The quantity of potatoes delivered to the flour factories 
naturally varies with the harvest, and as mentioned above the 
co-operative factories have now absorbed the bulk of the trade. 
Figures for three years before and since the War are given below. 

D 



722 Preventing " Bunt " in Wheat. [Nov., 





Co-op. Mills. 


Other Mills. 


Total. 




tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


1910/11 


244,000 


305,000 


549,000 


1911/12 


228,750 


137,250 


366,000 


1912/13 


405,650 


426,085 


831,735 


1919/20 


523,075 


78,385 


601,460 


1920/21 


508,740 


55,815 


564,555 


1921/22 


329,095 


14,333 


343,430 


The average production of flour 


is estimated 


at 380 lb. per ton 



of potatoes delivered at the flour mill. In normal years about 
25,000 tons of flour are used in the Netherlands, the balance 
being exported. 

jit A? & 

*T» T- 7Jv vj\ 1^ 

A SAFE METHOD OF PREVENTING 
"BUNT 55 IN WHEAT. 

E. S. Salmon and H. Wormald, 
Mycological Department, South- Eastern Agricultural College, 

Wye, Kent. 

There is perhaps none of the common fungus diseases of farm 
crops that more urgently needs attention at the present time than 
" Bunt," or " Stinking Smut," of Wheat.* In the years since 
the War, complaints of its increasing prevalence have been 
made from all parts of England. Professor E. H. Biffen, 
referring more especially to the wheat lands in the Eastern 
Counties, has written: f" Bunted wheat is far commoner than 
it should be. In part this is due to the fact that a good deal of 
the grain sold for seed purposes is infected. Buyers should be 
more on their guard, and if a single * bunted ' grain can be 
detected in a seed sample, that should be a sufficient reason for 
rejecting it. The reason for this apparently drastic course is 
that many vendors are too prone to assume that wheat can be 
adequately cleaned by the simple process of blowing out such 
grains. But whilst it is true that the spore-filled grains 
(bunt) can be removed in this manner, no wind current will dis- 
pose of the myriads of spores which inevitably find their way 
into the grooves of the grains or the brushes of hairs at their 
tips during the threshing of the crop." 

Losses. — In a recent number of this Journalt outbreaks of 
bunt were recorded in Herefordshire, Shropshire, Cambridge- 

* An illustrated Leaflet (No. 92) on Bunt, giving the full life-history, can 
be obtained post-free on application to the Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture 
and Fisheries, 10, Whitehall Place, London, S.W. 1. 

f Jour. Roy. Agric. Soc. of England, 81, p. 244 (1920). 

J Vol. XXVIII, 1921, p. 730. ' 



1922.] 



shire, Lancashire, Gloucestershire and Lincolnshire where from 
25 to 55 per cent, of the ears were attacked. The following 
case is also recorded : — in a northern county a chance sheaf of 
wheat was taken from the binder and the ears counted : 525 were 
found affected with bunt and 563 free, i.e., 48 per cent, of the 
wheat was infected! In Kent— East Kent, Mid-Kent and the 
Weald — bunt is far too prevalent, and serious infestations have 
occurred in crops of the varieties Standard Eed, Yeoman and 
Marshal Foch. In one case a farmer growing Marshal Foch for 
a firm of seedsmen, had the crop thrown on his hands on account 
of the prevalence of bunt. 

Whilst the worst infected fields are doubtless due to the farmer 
saving seed from a bunt-infested crop, the disease is present 
also in seed-wheat sold by seedsmen. In 1921, in a field of 
wheat (Standard Eed) grown on Wye College Farm from seed 
supplied by a firm of seedsmen in the south of England, a 
counting of a sample of 1,000 ears in the field showed 5.1 per 
cent, of bunted ears — a serious infestation. 

Pickling of Seed. — In 1921, in this Journal* the writers 
pointed out : (1) that the common method of (i pickling " wheat 
with a solution of " bluestone " (copper sulphate) was too dan- 
gerous, experiments showing that a solution of bluestone suffi- 
ciently strong to kill the spores of bunt present on the seed- 
wheat causes serious injury to the germination of the wheat; 
and (2) that a certain method of using a solution of formalin 
kills the bunt syores without appreciably affecting the germina- 
tion of the seed -wheat. 

Further field experiments have been carried out in 1921 and 
1922, and their results, described below, show very clearly that 
by the use of a very dilute solution of formalin a simple, safe 
and cheap method exists for the prevention of bunt. 

In our previous article cited above we wrote : " It is to be 
feared that many cases of a ' poor plant ' in wheat may have 
been caused by the seed having been ' pickled ' with too strong 
a solution of copper sulphate." Evidence we have collected 
since confirms this opinion. From inquiries we have made of 
farmers we have ascertained that it is often the case that a field 
sown with seed-wheat treated with a 10 per cent, solution of 
bluestone will show a poor and tardy germination, while where 
it has happened that a portion of the same field has been drilled 
with untreated seed-wheat of the same kind the germination has 
been good and quick. In one case a farmer (in East Kent) sent 

* Vol. XXVII, 19'-!1, p. 1013. 

d 2 



724 



Preventing " Bunt " in Wheat. 



[Nov., 



us some seed-wheat (Standard Bed) which he had " pickled " in 
the traditional method with a 10 per cent, solution of copper 
sulphate (using 1 gal. to the 4 bushels'). Comparing the germina- 
tion of this seed with that of an untreated sample of the same 
seed, it was found that the " pickled " seed germinated only 47 
per cent, in 10 days, increasing after 15 days to 57 per cent., 
and reaching finally 60 per cent. ; the untreated seed germinated 
98 per cent, in 4 days. In another case, where the same method 
was employed, again by a farmer, the treated seed (Marshal 
Foch) germinated only 70 per cent., while the untreated seed 
gave 100 per cent, germination.* Here, then, the farmers were 
killing from BO to 40 per cent, of the seed- wheat before sowing 
it. Assuming that 2 J bushels of seed to the acre is the correct 
amount to be sown, there may thus be a sheer waste of J to 1 
bushel of seed-wheat to the acre. Sir Daniel Hall pointed out.t 
in 1920. that " if we could reduce the amount of seed used by 
one bushel an acre the country would gain 3 per cent, on its 
output of wheat, worth well over £1,000,000 a year at the 
present time.+ 

I. Experiments during 1920-21. — The object of the experi- 
ments was to confirm previous results which showed that for- 
malin was preferable to copper sulphate, and also to ascertain 
whether a more dilute solution of formalin than that previously 
used was equally effective. 

The general method adopted was that described in the pre- 
vious paper. Contaminated seed was obtained from the experi- 
mental plots of the preceding season and divided into 5 lots for 
treatment as shown in the table. Duplicate plots were sown (by 
hand) with each lot of seed, samples being retained and sent to the 
Official Seed Testing Station, where the percentage of germina- 
tion was determined. As the plants grew the plots were examined 
periodically to see whether the treatment had had any adverse 
effect on the growth, but no difference in the general appearance 
of the plots could be seen. When the crops were harvested 1,000 
ears were taken at random from each plot and examined indi- 
vidually for bunt. The results obtained were as follows: — 

* We are indebted to Mr. S. T. Parkinson. Head of the Botanical Depart- 
ment, South-Eastern Agricultural College. Wye, for carrying out these 
germination tests. 

f This Journal, Vol. XXVII, 1920, p. 626. 

1 As is, of course, well known, good crops are frequently obtained from 
seed " pickled " with bluestone. Until scientific investigations as to the correct 
rate of seeding have been made, it is open to any one to hold the view that a 
better crop is obtained by sowing the lesser quantity of viable seed caused by 
the bluestone treatment. The economic waste of seed would, of course, still 
remain. 



1922.] 



Preventing " Bunt " in Wheat. 



725 



Table I. 



Treatment. 



Percentage 
Germina- 
tion. 
98 



Number of Percentage 
Bunted Ears of Bunted 
per 1,000. Ears. 



Formalin 1 : 400 



Formalin 1 : 320 



9S 




$ 1} 0.5 
<V> °l\ 0.35 



Formalin 1 : 480 



99 



(2) lu| °' 7 

(2) 62 $ bA 

( 1} 115 !■ U2 

(2) 171 ] 14 1 



Copper Sulphate 2.5 per cent. 



99 



Untreated 



99 



Discussion of Results, 1921. — In our previous article* we 
recorded the fact that formalin diluted 1 : 820 (1 pint to 40 gal. 
water) was as effective in controlling bunt as the 1 : 240 solution 
(1 pint to 30 gal. water) and was therefore to be preferred. The 
dilution 1 : 320 was the weakest used in all previous experiments ; 
it was decided therefore to use in 1920-21, the weaker solutions 
1 : 400 and 1 : 480, and contrast these with the solution pre- 
viously used. 

As will be seen from Table I. all the formalin solutions gave 
satisfactory results, reducing the percentage of " bunted " ears 
from 14.2 to less than 1, the actual differences observed being 
perhaps within the experimental error. Since it was clear that 
the limit of dilution when formalin ceases to be effective had not 
been reached, it was decided to carry out a further series of 
experiments in the next year before publishing these results. 

The one copper sulphate solution that was used, of 2.5 per 
cent, strength (2| lb. to 10 gal. water), was the strongest that 
our previous experiments had shown could be used without 
seriously injuring the germination of the seed. As is shown in 
Table I, the control of bunt when using this copper sulphate 
solution was by no means satisfactory; the 5 per cent, of 
" bunted " ears that appeared in the plots would represent a 
very serious infestation in the field. In the writers' opinion the 
use of a copper sulphate solution, and also of the proprietary 
articles containing copper sulphate which are sold as remedies 
for bunt, should be abandoned in favour of formalin. 

II. Experiments during the season 1921-22. — The object of 
these experiments was to test weaker solutions of formalin and 
also to obtain some information relative to the effect that the 
presence of whole bunted grains, in samples of seed-wheat 
treated by the formalin method, might have on the amount of 
bunt in the resulting crops. 



* This Journal, Vol. XXVII, 1921, p. 1013. 



726 



Preventing " Bunt " in Wheat. 



[Nov., 



In the first place it seemed desirable to ascertain whether 
whole bunted grains could be passed through a drill without 
being broken up. The following method of testing this was 
devised : 1,000 bunted grains were counted out and mixed with 
a gallon of seed free from bunt ; this was passed through a drill* 
and collected. It was then steeped in water, when the bunted 
grains floated to the top and were collected and counted : 996 
of the original 1,000 were collected in this way. A few of these 
were found burst in the water but this was probably due to water 
soaking in through slight cracks, as this was found to occur when 
slightly cracked bunted grains were put into water, but with 
these exceptions the grains were recovered whole. There 
appears then to be little danger of bunted grains becoming 
broken up in passing through a drill of the type used. 

The field experiments for 1922 were modified from those of 
previous years in order to study the effect of deliberately sowing 
whole bunted grains with the seed. 

About 1 pint of bunted grains had been collected from the 
plots of the previous season's experiment. 90 c.c. of these were 
measured out into each of 5 glasses; the rest were crushed up 
with a pestle and mortar and the powder (consisting of the spores 
of the bunt fungus) was sprinkled over about 1J bushels of seed- 
wheat (Standard Eed), the whole being mixed together until 
every grain, so far as could be seen when examining a handful 
of the seed, had a blackened tuft of hairs at the tip. 

Ten separate gallons of this inoculated seed were then mea- 
sured out, and to each of five of these were added 90 c.c. of the 
whole bunted grains, i.e., approximately 2 per cent. 

The samples were then treated as shown in the accompanying 
table. The formalin, applied as in previous experiments, was 
used at strengths varying from 1 : 820 to 1 : 800. The plots 
were sown on the second dav after the treatment. 

The plots were examined periodically but no difference in the 
stand could be detected among the plots. At harvest time 1,000 
ears were collected from each plot and the number of bunted 
ears present ascertained. 

Since, on the whole, the plots of which the seed contained 
unbroken bunt grains showed no more bunt than those of which 

* The drill used was a Massey Harris No. 5 Disc Drill f" force feed "), set 
to sow 3 bushels to the acre, travelling at a speed of 2 miles per hour. The 
machine was operated, for the object of the experiment, by means of a crank 
turned by hand, so that the machine itself was stationary, thus enabling- the 
pasfipd seed to be collected in a sheet placed bflow the drill. We wish to 
thank Mr. C. Davies, Head of the Engineering Department, Wye College, for 
his assistance in this matter 



1922.] 



Preventing " Bunt " in Wheat. 



727 



the seed had none, it is to be assumed that the presence of such 
grains did not increase the amount of infection; the plots of 
which the seed received similar treatment are therefore taken 
together in calculating the percentage of bunt resulting from 
each treatment. 

Table II. 

Whole Bunted ■ 





Grains absent 




Bunted 


Percentage 


Treatment. 


or present (2 


Percentage 


Ear* per 


q Bunted 




'per cent,') in 


(n'erm motion. 


L00O. 


Ears. 




the seed. 






Formalin 1 : 320 


... (1) Absent 


98 





0.05 




(2) Present 


100 


1 




Formalin 1 : 480 


... (1) Absent 


99 





0.05 




(2) Present 


99 


1 




Formalin 1 : (340 


... (1) Absent 


100 


7 


0.65 




(2) Present 


98 


6 




Formalin 1 : 800 


... (1) Absent 


99 


17 


1.4 




(2) Present 


100 


11 




Untreated 


... (1) Absent 


97 


409 


38.95 




(2) Present 


100 


370 





Discussion of Results, 1922. — The formalin solutions were 
used at the following dilutions : 1 pint of formalin to 
respectively 40. 60, 80 and 100 gal. of water. The results 
obtained, shown in Table II, showed clearly that the formalin 
became less efficacious the more it was diluted below the 1 : 480 
(1 pint to 60 gal.) limit. The presence of 2 per cent, of whole 
" bunted " grains in the seed produced no increase of disease. 
The artificially contaminated seed produced in the two " con- 
trol " plots as high a percentage of " bunted " ears as 37 and 
40. In view of the intensity of the disease present its reduction 
to 1.4 per cent, in the plots where the formalin was used at the 
extreme dilution of 1 : 800 (1 pint to 100 gal.) is noteworthy, as 
indicating the efficacy of formalin as a fungicide against bunt. 
The results show that the use of formalin, diluted 1 : 480 (1 pint 
to 60 gal.) gives a perfectly satisfactory control of bunt. With 
formalin at this dilution no possible injury to the seed -wheat is 
to be feared, provided that it is applied in the method described 
below. 

Summary. — 1. The old traditional method of "pickling" 
wheat with a solution of " bluestone " (copper sulphate) should 
be abandoned. Experiments have shown that a solution of the 
strength necessary to kill the spores of bunt seriously injures the 
germination of the seed-wheat. 



728 



2. An easier, cheaper and a safe method of preventing bunt 
has been discovered in the use of a dilute solution of formalin, 
applied in the following manner : — 

(a) The diluted solution recommended for use is prepared by adding one 

part of formalin* to 480 parts of water, (e.g. 1 pint formalin to 
60 gal. of water, or for small quantities, 1 fluid oz. to 3 gal., or 1 
tablcspoonful to 1^ gal.). 

(b) The diluted solution is slowly sprinkled over the seed wheat at the rate 

of 1 gal. of solution to 2 bushels of seed. The seed must be moved 
about and stirred until the grains are all thoroughly wetted, but in no 
circumstances must the solution be allowed to form pools under the 
heap in which grains might soak. 

(c) The seed is then placed in a heap and covered with sacks which have 

been soaked in the formalin solution ; the sacks should be uniformly 
wet but not dripping. 

(d) The treated seed is left covered up for 4 hours, not longerf ; then 

spread out to dryina thin layer on a clean floor ; if the floor has been 
previously used for untreated corn it should be wetted all over with 
the formalin solution and allowed to dry before the treated seed is 
spread on it. 

(e) Precautions must be taken to prevent the re-infection of the treated 

seed, e.g., sacks which have held untreated infected wheat must not 
be used for the treated seed unless they have undergone treatment by 
being soaked in the formalin solution or boiled in water. 

( f) The treated seed when dry should be sown as soon as possible. 

3. It would appear that a method involving the immersion 
of the seed-wheat and skimming off the " bunted " grain, or the 
use of machinery to secure the same end, is unnecessary. 



****** 



* -Formalin is the trade name for a 40 per cent, solution of the gas 
formaldehyde in water. Purchasers should obtain a guarantee that the forma- 
lin sold i- of the above strength, and see that it is a clear solution free from 
any precipitate. Formalin needs to be kept in a tightly closed bottle and 
only freshly prepared diluted solutions should be used, as the gas is volatile. 

f In one case, that came to the writers' notice, of injury being caused, it 
transpired that the farmer had left the treated grain in a heap 18 in. deep 
from mid-afternoon till the following morning at 6.30. 



1922.] First Year's Working of the Seeds Act, 19-20. 729 



THE FIRST YEAR'S WORKING OF 
THE SEEDS ACT, 1920. 

The Seeds Act, 1920., and the Regulations made under it have 
now been in operation for twelve months and there is consider- 
able evidence to show that farmers and others have already bene- 
fited. The main object of the Act is to protect the farmer against 
the danger of unknowingly purchasing and sowing inferior seeds. 
With this end in view, in the case of a sale of any of the prin- 
cipal farm or garden seeds the seller is required to declare in 
writing to the purchaser, at or before the time of sale or delivery, 
certain specified particulars as to the quality of the seeds, such 
as the percentage germination, percentage purity, presence of 
injurious weed seeds, etc Long before the disclosure of these 
essential particulars was made obligatory by Government action, 
all the well-known seed establishments made a practice of giving 
these guarantees, but the distribution of seeds in this country is 
carried on by a vast number of firms other than the large and 
better known seedsmen, and it is by bringing these smaller firms 
into line as regards guaranteeing the quality of the seeds they 
sell that the Seeds Act is doing good. It is also stimulating 
the demand for good seed, and so forcing off the market much 
of the low grade material. The value of seed is insignificant 
when compared with the cost of labour and of other materials, 
but the return from all expenditure on tillage depends largely on 
the quality of the seeds which are sown, hence the value of the 
Seeds Act in enabling the farmer or gardener to ascertain the 
quality of the seeds he is sowing. 

Licensed Private Seed Testing Stations. — One of the 

greatest difficulties experienced in administering the Testing of 
Seeds Order, which was the forerunner of the Seeds Act, arose 
from the variation in results of tests carried out by different 
analysts. In order to overcome this difficulty, it was proposed, 
when the Seeds Act was being drafted, that there should be one 
central testing station for the whole of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and that all tests for the purposes of the Act should be carried 
out at this station. It was hoped that by concentrating at one 
station the most up-to-date apparatus, in the hands of a highly 
efficient staff employing the latest scientific methods, it would 
be possible to place seed testing on a sounder footing in this 
country than in any other part of the world. This proposal, 
however, did not find favour in Scotland and Ireland, both of 



730 First Year's Working of the Seeds Act, 1920. [Nov., 



which countries wished to retain their own official stations. 
Nevertheless, the Seeds Act is so worded that the establishment 
of a central official station is still possible. 

Once it had been decided to have an official seed testing sta- 
tion for each part of the United Kingdom, it was difficult to 
withstand the claims of those old established seed firms who 
had for many years tested their own seed in an efficient manner 
to be allowed to continue these operations. It was therefore 
agreed that tests for the purpose of the Act (except in the case 
of garden seeds) should be allowed at private testing stations, 
provided that they were licensed for that purpose by the Ministry. 

Judging by the experience gained during the past twelve 
months, the system of having licensed stations is not likely 
to prove unsatisfactory. Variations in the results of tests occur 
from time to time, but their number and seriousness have been 
very considerably reduced. 

Sixty-eight private stations in England and Wales have so far 
been licensed to test, as follows : — All kinds of seeds covered by 
the Act, 28 ; all kinds of seed except grass seed, 3 ; clover, rye- 
grass, cereal and field seeds only, 1 ; field and cereal seeds only, 
5 ; field seeds only, 5 ; cereal seeds only, 2G. Except in one case, 
the carrying out of tests for fees is not allowed in the case of 
these licensed premises, the privileges being limited to tests for 
the purpose of the purchase or sale of seeds in connection with 
the licensee's own business. 

Among the conditions affecting these licences is one which 
requires a portion of every sample tested to be preserved with 
the necessary marks of identification for a period of three 
months. A selection of these reserved samples is taken from 
time to time by inspectors of the Ministry, for check tests at 
the Official Seed Testing Station. So far, however, remarkably 
few cases of serious discrepancy have occurred between the 
results obtained at a licensed Station and the check tests 
carried out at the Official Station. 

A number of analysts from these licensed stations, and others 
who hope to qualify for similar posts, have attended a special 
instructional course during the past summer at the Official Seed 
Testing Station, Cambridge. 

Inspection of Seedsmen's Premises. — Visits to seedsmen's 
premises are carried out by the Ministry's outdoor staff. The 
total number of visits paid during the twelve months ended 
July, 1922, was 11,000, including nearly 5,000 establishments 
that had not been visited before in connection with the Seeds 



1922.] First Year's Working of the Seeds Act, 1920. 731 



Act. Practically the whole of the 5,000 not previously visited 
were firms where seeds are sold mainly in sealed packets only 
during a very short period in the spring, entirely as a side-line 
to the main business of the establishment. They included 
chemists, genera! stores, hardware merchants, provision mer- 
chants, confectioners, rural post-offices, ironmongers, coal 
merchants, stationers, fishmongers, fruiterers, barbers, boot 
dealers, dentists, newsagents, cattle dealers, butter merchants, 
cycle dealers, tea merchants, drapers and butchers. 

It has been suggested that the Ministry's inspectors neglect 
to visit the small trader of the kind above referred to, but the 
figures given should disprove such a contention. It must be 
remembered also that it is much more difficult for the inspectors 
to discover shops which combine a small seed trade, limited 
to a few weeks in the year, with another business, than it is to 
find those establishments where the sale of seeds and kindred 
material is the principal business. 

Control Samples. — The principal object in visiting premises 
on which seed is sold is to ascertain whether the provisions of 
the Seeds Act are being properly carried out. With this end in 
view it is necessary to draw a certain number of control samples 
for the purpose of having check tests carried out at the Official 
Seed Testing Station. During the season 1921-22 the number 
of control samples so taken amounted to 950, including 282 
samples of clover, 177 of grasses, 9 of field seeds, 20 of cereals, 
95 of roots, and 356 of vegetables. In addition, 280 control 
samples of sealed packets were taken and also 500 samples of 
seeds placed in reserve at the licensed private seed testing 
stations. 

The check tests carried out at the Official Seed Testing 
Station showed that in 97 out of the 950 samples, the declara- 
tion as to germination, purity, etc., made by the seller was in- 
accurate to a marked degree in one or other of the particulars. 
These discrepancies were mainly in respect of clover, grasses 
and garden seeds; 12 per cent, of the total number of clover 
samples; 15 per cent, of the grass samples, and 8 per cent, of 
the garden samples proving to be incorrectly described. 

The principal source of error in the statements made by 
vendors was in respect of the percentage of germination. In 
13 cases the declared germination differed from the results of 
the official check test by between 10 and 15 per cent, and in 25 
cases the discrepancies were over 20 per cent. Ten cases showed 
a discrepancy of between 3 and 5 per cent, in the percentage 



732 First Year's Working of the Seeds Act, 1920. [Nov., 



of purity and in 13 cases dodder was found in samples declared 
• to be dodder free. 

In addition to the above, 76 of the control samples taken were 
of seeds in connection with which no declaration whatever was 
being made. In the majority of these cases, however, the check 
test showed the seed to be of good average quality. 

It is impossible to draw general conclusions from the results 
of the check tests on control samples as the figures are not strictly 
comparable with those of the previous season on account of the 
fresh ground broken by the inspectors. It is satisfactory to note, 
however, that in spite of the fact that a large number of ' ' new 
premises were visited, the number of control samples that it 
was considered desirable to take was considerably fewer than 
last season, and that the proportion of these control samples 
which were shown by the check test to be wrongly described by 
the vendors was only 2 per cent, in excess of last year's figure. 
Control samples are taken as a rule only in cases where the 
declaration of the vendor is suspected to be inaccurate. 

In all cases where the check test showed a marked discrepancy 
from the vendor's particulars, the matter was taken up with the 
person concerned, and in practically every instance the action 
of the Ministry resulted either in the seeds being destroyed or 
returned to the firm from which they were purchased, or in the 
seller adopting the official test as the basis of his declaration in 
further sales. 

Packeted Seed. — As already indicated, one of the most help- 
ful features of the Seeds Act is the effect it is having in regu- 
lating the sale of seeds in small packets. It is well known that, 
in the past, large quantities of seeds, the age and germination 
of which left much to be desired, were sold in this manner. 

Many small shopkeepers purchase a stock of packeted seed 
which is offered for sale during the sowing season year after 
year, until the supply is exhausted. As a result, much of this 
is of very poor germination by the time it comes to be sown by 
the unfortunate purchaser. 

This practice is now prevented by the Seeds Regulations 
which require a statement to be delivered to the purchaser of 
packeted seed showing the percentage of germination and purity, 
the date of testing, and the season in which the seeds were 
packeted, etc. It cannot, of course, be claimed that the sale of 
poor quality seeds in packets has been stopped during the short 
period that these regulations have been in force, but there is 
evidence to show that an improvement has been effected, and 



1922.] Redemption of Tithe Eentcharge by Annuity. 733 



it is anticipated that the grading up process will continue, as 
more experience is gained. 

During the 1921-22 season, the Ministry's inspectors dis- 
covered a large number of cases in which, owing to ignorance 
of the Regulations, the necessary particulars were not being 
declared by the seller. Steps have now been taken to visit the 
many comparatively small wholesale packeters who supply the 
packets to the small shopkeepers, for the purpose of explaining 
to them the provisions of the Regulations as affecting them- 
selves, and as affecting the retailers to whom they sell their 
stocks of packets. The beneficial result of these visits is already 
apparent. 

During the season 270 control samples of packeted seed were 
taken. The result of the check test on these samples showed 
that 83 per cent, were seeds germinating at or above the mini- 
mum prescribed in the Seeds Regulations; 10 per cent, germi- 
nated below the minimum but above two-thirds, and 7 per cent, 
were below two-thirds. The corresponding figures for the 
season 1920-21 were 81 per cent., 13 per cent., and 6 per cent, 
respectively. 

(To be concluded.) 
****** 

REDEMPTION OF 
TITHE RENTCHARGE BY ANNUITY. 

(1) The Advantages of Redemption. — It is generally agreed 
by both landowners and titheowners that the redemption of 
tithe rentcharge on reasonable terms is desirable. Redemption 
saves the landowner the trouble of verifying the accuracy of 
the demands sent to him half-yearly by the tithe collector and 
of having to remit the payments for sums which, in manv 
instances, are very small. It also removes a possible cause 
of complication and delay in sales and other dispositions of 
land. 

The chief advantages of redemption to the titheowner are 
that it saves him the cost of collection, which in some parishes 
is considerable, obviates a frequent cause of ill-feeling and 
litigation and extinguishes the tithe rentcharge for all purposes 
including the payment of rates and land tax, and thus relieves 
him of the necessity for taking steps from time to time to 
obtain a re-assessment of the tithe rentcharge for the purposes 



734 PiEDEMI'TION OF TlTHE ReNTCHARGE BY ANNUITY. [NOV., 



of rating and taxation. It is not, however, always convenient 
to landowners to find capital sums for the redemption of tithe 
rentcharge on their lands, even though capital moneys are 
under the Settled Land Acts applicable for such purpose, and 
to meet such coses the Tithe Act, 1918, provided facilities for 
landowners to redeem by annuity. 

(2) Calculation of Redemption Annuities. — By agreement 
between the landowner and the titheowner under the Act the 
consideration for redemptiou ma}^ be discharged by an annuity 
payable yearly or half-yearly for a period not exceeding 50 years. 
Section 4 (2) of the Act provides that the amount of the annuity 
shall be calculated in the following manner : — To interest not 
exceeding 5 per cent, per annum on the consideration money is 
to be added such sum as would be sufficient, if the periodical 
payments thereof were accumulated at compound interest at a 
rate not exceeding 4 per cent, per annum, to produce an 
amount equal to the consideration money at the end of the 
said period. The total of these two sums will give the amount 
of the yearly or half-yearly payment of the annuity as the 
case may be. 

In any such case the Minister by order charges the land 
with the annuity, and the order contains provisions for giving 
effect to the charge and for protecting the interests of persons 
interested in the rentcharge. 

(3) Consents necessary to Redemption by Annuity. — Under 
Section 4 (3) of the Tithe Act, 1918, however, no such agree- 
ment for redemption by annuity is valid : — 

(a) If made by a spiritual person entitled in respect of his benefice or cure 
except with the consent of Queen Anne's Bounty ; or 

(b) If made by a person (not being a spiritual person so entitled) who is 
not empowered to sell the rentcharge unless he obtains the consent of 
some other person, except with the consent of that other person. 

(4) Redemption by Annuity of Clerical Tithe Rentcharge and 
Welsh Tithe Rentcharge. — The Ministry understands that 
Queen Anne's Bounty will, as a rule, be prepared to consent 
under certain conditions to the redemption of any tithe rent- 
charge or tithe rentcharges amounting in all to not less than 
£1 payable by a landowner to an incumbent, and to advise 
the incumbent to agree to the same. The Ministry also under- 
stands that the Welsh Church Commissioners, who own over 
^6200,000 tithe rentcharge in Wales and Monmouth, will, as a 
rule, be ready to agree to applications for redemption by 
annuity of any tithe rentcharge payable to the Commissioners. 



1922.1 Redemption of Tithe Rentchabge by Annuity. 735 



(5) Former Objections to Redemption by Annuity now 
removed. — When the Tithe Act, 1918, was passed the follow- 
ing objections to redemption by annuity under that Act were 
urged : — 

(1) There was no statutory power whereby redemption annuities could be 
apportioned except under the almost unworkable provisions of Sections 
10 to 14 of the Inclosure Act, 1854, so that owners of land upon 
which redemption annuities were charged were in a position of consider- 
able difficulty when they came to sell portions of the land. 

(2) There was no statutory power under which the landowner could, if he 
thought fit, compel the redemption of a redemption annuity on fair 
terms. 

(3) Where land was held in settlement, capital moneys belonging to the 
settled estate could not be applied in payment of the sinking fund 
portion of the annuity and consequently the tenant for life or other 
limited owner of the land who redeemed by annuity was liable, not only 
for the interest on the consideration money for redemption which might 
be said to take the place of the annual tithe rentcharge payment, but 
also for the sinking fund payment which was really capital outlay. 

These objections have now been partially met by the Tithe 
Annuities Apportionment Act, 1921, and the position will be 
further improved when the Lav; of Property Act which has just 
been passed comes into force, i.e., on the 1st January, 1925. 

(6) Apportionment of Eedemption Annuities. — Facilities for 
the apportionment of redemption annuities were provided by 
the Tithe Annuities Apportionment Act, 1921. Under Sec- 
tion 1 (1) of this Act an application for an order for such an 
apportionment can be made to the Ministry by any person in- 
terested in the land charged or any part of it without the con- 
currence of any other person. Section 1 (2) empowers the 
Ministry, on the application of an interested person, to require 
as a condition of making the order that any apportioned part 
of the annuity which does not exceed the yearly sum of £2 
shall be redeemed forthwith. 

(7) Redemption of Redemption Annuities. — When the Law of 
Property Act comes into force, i.e., on the 1st January, 1925, 
any person interested in the whole or any part of the land 
affected by a redemption annuity will be empowered, without 
the consent of the annuitant or any other person, to free his 
land from the annuity by redemption under Section 92 of the 
Act, which amends Section 45 of the Conveyancing and Law of 
Property Act, 1881. 

(8) Settled Lands.— Section 2 of the Act provides that Sec- 
tion 21 of the Settled Land Act, 1882 ; which sets out how 



736 Redemption of Tithe Rentchaege by Annuity. [Nov., 



capital money arising under that Act may be applied, is to 
have effect as if the modes of such application of capital money 
included the discharge, purchase or redemption of any appor- 
tioned part of a tithe redemption annuity charged on the 
settled land or any part of it, or the discharge of such part 
as does not represent interest (i.e., the sinking fund portion). 

Section 64 (1) (iv) of the Law of Property Act provides in 
effect that in addition to the modes authorised by Section 21 
of the Settled Land Act, 1882, capital money shall be deemed 
always to have been capable of being applied in the purchase 
or discharge of an annuity charged under Section 4 of the 
Tithe Act, 1918, on settled land or any part thereof or in the 
discharge of such part of any such annuity as does not represent 
interest. 

It will be observed that these provisions of the recent Act 
supplement the provisions of Section 2 of the Tithe Annuities 
Apportionment Act, ^1921, and authorise the application of 
capital money arising under the Settled Land Acts to un- 
apportioned annuities. It is also to be noted that though the 
Law of Property Act does not come into operation until 1925, 
the provisions as regards the application of capital moneys of 
settled estates to the purchase or discharge of an annuity or 
to the discharge of the sinking fund portion of an annuity when 
they come into operation will be retrospective. 

(9) Preliminary Steps for Redemption by Annuity. — It 

seems not improbable that the alterations in law above referred 
to may induce many persons interested in settled lands who 
have hitherto hesitated to redeem by annuity to consider 
whether they should not now take steps to avail themselves of 
the facilities now provided for that purpose. 

Landowners who desire to redeem by annuity the tithe rent- 
charge owned by incumbents of benefices should, in the first 
instance, communicate with Queen Anne's Bounty, 3, Dean's 
Yard, Westminster, London, S.W.I. 

In other cases it will usually be convenient for the land- 
owner to make application for redemption to the Ministry in 
the usual form No. 157/L.T. in the first instance. He should 
at the same time send to this Office the usual search charge, 
which is 5s. if the property does not exceed 10 acres, 10s. if 
it exceeds 10 acres but does not exceed 30 acres, and a further 
5s. for every additional 30 acres or part of 30 acres. For 
example, if the area included in the redemption is 300 acres 



1922.] Redemption of Tithe Rentcharge by Annuity. 737 



this preliminary charge wiii be 10s. plus nine times 5s., i.e., 
£2 15s. Od. The amount thus paid will be credited to the 
applicant as part of the office fee, calculated in accordance with 
paragraph 19 of the Ministry's Instructions for Redemption, 
Form No. 261/L.T., which will eventually be payable by him 
before the order for redemption is made. 

On receiving such an application the Ministry will, in the 
case of tithe rentcharge payable to the Welsh Church Com- 
missioners, communicate with the Commissioners as regards 
the amount of the annuity, and subsequently notify the same 
to the applicant for his agreement. In cases where the tithe 
rentcharge is not owned either by an incumbent or by the 
Welsh Church Commissioners, the Ministry will itself suggest 
to the applicant for redemption what, in its opinion, would be 
a reasonable amount at which to fix the annuity and request 
him to communicate with the titheowner with a view to obtain- 
ing his agreement to the same, if possible. 

(10) Hedemption by Lump Sum does not require Consents. 

— Where redemption by a lump sum is proposed it is still 
possible for the landowner to redeem without the consent of 
the titheowner or any other person. In the absence of any 
agreement as to the amount of the consideration money, the 
Ministry determines the amount in accordance with the First 
Schedule to the Tithe Act, 1918, the provisions of which are 
explained in paragraph 4 of the Ministry's Instructions for 
Redemption No. 261/L.T. 

(11) Redemption where Land has been taken for Public 
Purposes. — Under Section 1 of the Tithe Act, 1878, as amended 
by the Tithe Act, 1918, it is provided that where land charged 
with tithe rentcharge is taken for any of the following 
purposes, viz. : — 

The building of any church, chapel, or other place of public worship ; 

The making of any cemetery or other place of burial ; 

The erection of any school under the Elementary Educatiou Acts ; 

The erection of any town hall, court of assize, gaol, lunatic asylum, 
hospital, or any other building used for public purposes, or in the 
carrying out of any improvements under the Housing of the Working- 
Classes Act, 1890 ; 

The formation of any sewage farm under the provisions of the Sanitary 
Acts, or the construction of any sewers, or sewage works, or any gas or 
water works ; 

Or the enlarging or improving of the premises or buildings occupied or used 
for any of the above-mentioned purposes ; 

B 



736 Making of Clogs, Clog-Soles and Clog-Blocks. [Nov., 



the person or persons proposing to carry out the above-men- 
tioned works, buildings, or improvements, shall apply to the 
Ministry to order the redemption of the tithe rentcharge. 

Eepresentations have been made to the Ministry that the 
provisions of this Section are frequently disregarded by the 
landowners concerned. There may, perhaps, have been some 
justification for this before the passing of the Tithe Act, 
1918, when the consideration money for redemption had to 
be calculated on the basis of 25 years' purchase of the par 
value of the tithe rentcharge. Now, however, that it is possible 
to redeem on equitable terms it is desirable that in all cases to 
which the Section applies application for redemption should 
be made forthwith. 

(12) Redemption of Corn Rents. — The provisions relating to 
tithe rentcharge referred to in the foregoing paragraphs sub- 
stantially apply also to corn rents, rent charges, and money 
payments (other than rentcharges payable under the Extra- 
ordinary Tithe Eedemption Act, 1886) which are liable to 
redemption under the Tithe Acts, 1836 to 1891. 

(13) Forms. — The following forms will be supplied on 
request : — 

.(«) Instructions for the redemption of tithe rentcharge and corn rents, etc., 
in cases where the application is made by the landowner (Form No. 
261/L.T.). 

'(b) Application for the redemption of tithe rentcharge in such cases 

(Form Xo. 157/L.T.). 
(c) Application for the redemption of corn rents, etc., in such cases (Form 

No. 204/L.T.). 

■(d) Forms of continuation schedule for use in the redemption of tithe 
rentcharge or of corn rents, etc., in cases where the schedule provided in 
the form of application is not sufficient to show all the rentcharges 
proposed to be redeemed (Form Xo. 133/L.T.). 

jfe ite. sle. jfe 

'7^ *T* 1* ✓JN 

THE MAKING OF CLOGS, CLOG-SOLES 
AND CLOG-BLOCKS. 

Katharine S. Woods, 
Agricultural Economics Institute, Oxford. 

In the year 1337 a number of Flemish clothiers and weavers 
settled in Bolton, Lancashire, and the weavers brought with 
them their sabots or wooden shoes. The sabots were made en- 
tirely of wood, with lamb-skin linings to protect the feet. Wooden 



1922.] Making of Clogs, Clog-Soles and Clog-Blocks. 739 



shoes are known to have been worn in London earlier than the 
14th century, and may have been used in other parts of 
the country, but they were new to Lancashire.* 

Clogs are wooden shoes with leather uppers, and*pattens have 
rings of iron to keep the shoe off the ground. No kind of foot- 
gear could keep the feet warmer and dryer on wet ground, and 
they are reputed to protect the women who work in the Lanca- 
shire weaving sheds, which have damp floors, against rheumatism 
and other ills. Clogs are worn extensively in Lancashire, Wesl 
Yorkshire, and in neighbouring counties, by men, women and 
children. They are useful for dairy -work, both on the farm and 
in the cheese-factory, and are admirable for gardening, poultry- 
keeping or other work that involves standing or walking in wet 
places. Fashion has done ill-service to workers and children by 
decreeing that boots, however poor in quality, are smarter to 
wear than clogs. Clogs have light grooved irons underneath 
the edge of the sole and heel to make them wear better. A piece 
of leather is sometimes nailed on the sole within the irons to 
deaden the clatter which is apt to provoke merriment in districts 
where they are unfamiliar. Compared with thick boots they 
are not unduly heavy. The uninitiated would suppose that a 
rigid wooden sole would be most uncomfortable ; but the clogs 
are large enough for the foot to have freedom inside, and they 
depend upon the buckled flaps or laces that meet over the ankle 
to keep them on. There are several types, the " Lancashire " 
being distinct from the ' ' country, ' ' and considered to be smarter 
wear owing to the slightly pointed toe, which would be most 
uncomfortable unless extra length were allowed. " Country " 
clog wearers desire no such decorative style. It has been said 
that the habitual wearing of clogs from childhood checks the 
development of certain muscles at the back of the leg, and that 
clog- wearers may be known by their rocking walk as though they 
had runners or rockers on their feet. Shoes or slippers, how- 
ever, could be procured for summer and indoor wear and for 
running about at games, while clogs are greatly to be preferred 
to the cold and sodden boots that must often be worn bv children 
who can have only one pah- at a time. 

Kind of Wood Used. — Alder wood is preferred to any other 
for making clog-soles. It is so scarce that gangs of clog-block 
cutters visit the districts where it grows, sending off the roughed- 
out pieces of alder to the northern counties where clog-soles are 
fashioned from the blocks. The scarcity of material is no new 

* From "A Short Sketch of the Clog and Pa-ten Trade," by Alderman 
Bi-oughton, published by the Amalgamated Society of Master Cloggers. 

E 2 



740 Making of Clogs, Clog-Soles and Clog-Blocks. [Nov., 



difficulty. In the year 1456 the Clog and Patten Makers made 
a pitiful appeal to the King to be allowed to use such pieces of 

tymber of Aspe " as would not serve to make arrows. Their 
petition appears to have been granted for the time being, but 
in view of a projected invasion from France, the restraint on the 
use of this timber was again enforced on the clog-makers. 

The " Aspe " timber is a kind of poplar, extensively grown 
on the Scotch hills but seldom used by doggers at the present 
day. Birch is sometimes used, but alder makes the most 
comfortable clogs and is less apt to split than beech which 
is also sometimes used. The hand-made alder soles are preferred 
in Lancashire to the beech soles made in factories. Machinery 
is of fairly recent introduction and improvements are expected 
which will cause the machine-made soles to compete more effec- 
tively with the hand-made. It is also rumoured that ready-made 
soles may be sent over from the virgin woods of North America. 
By this means greater economy in transport than the English 
clog-block cutter can secure will be effected through leaving 
the waste material behind. He goes to the woods to work, 
selling his waste as firewood if he can. and burning up the small 
chips in his own fire. The clog-block, though it is cut to definite 
sizes for children's, women's and men's clogs, still has to be 
reduced greatly by the clog-sole maker to whom it is sent. His 
yard becomes littered with growing piles of chips as he cuts 
away at the blocks. It is said that three-quarters of the blocks 
are cut to waste. This illustrates the truth that wood-industries 
should not be isolated, disconnected crafts, but that the waste 
or parts less suitable for one craft should be passed on to be 
used for some other purpose with as much economy as possible 
in time, material, skill and transport. 

The interdependence of various wood -trades is also illustrated 
bv the fact that alder and birch are used both for broom-heads 

t/ 

and for clog-soles. A Devonshire wood-dealer whose principal 
trade is in firewood, sets turners to make broom-heads and clog- 
block makers to cut clog-blocks out of material sorted for each 
purpose. 

Cutting the Blocks. — The birch and alder, chiefly alder, is 
bought where it can be obtained in fairly large quantities, either 
felled or standing in the woods. The price is a matter of 
arrangement with the owner of the woods, who will often give 
credit until the returns from the finished clog-blocks come in. 
This makes it easy for a workman to become a master, as capital 
is only required for paying labour and board. During the War, 



1922.] Making of Clogs. Clog-Soles and Clog-Blocks. 741 



when demand was keen and prices were high, many workmen 
established businesses for themselves. For the roughest work 
of felling and sawing labour is often hired on the spot, but for 
the actual clog-block cutting skilled workers are employed who 
travel in gangs of six or seven. The system is the same as 
that in the timber trade when gangs are sent out to fell trees. 
Before the War, a Shropshire timber-merchant and clog-block 
dealer employed some twenty-five to thirty clog-block cutters. 
They travelled from place to place in various parts of the country, 
Salisbury, Oxford, Thetford and Southampton being amongst 
the places mentioned by this Shropshire merchant. Thus it 
sometimes happens that a travelling clog-block cutter settles 
down in a district where alder flourishes and sends off his blocks 
to former employers or other acquaintances in the trade. Some 
of the ^log-block dealers who are settled in the south and west 
of England may be known by their speech and enterprise as 
North-countrymen . 

The tree or pole after being felled is sawn into fixed lengths 
of four sizes, for men, women, boys and children. If the wood 
is knottv there is more waste, and onlv the smaller sizes can 
be cut. These lengths are then placed on wooden block supports 
and cut into shape with a special tool. This is a knife made of 
one piece of steel about 2 J ft. in length, bent to an obtuse angle 
in the middle, the lower half forming a blade about four inches 
deep and terminating at the end in a strong hook. This secures 
the knife to a wooden block driven firmly into the ground. This 
block forms one of the two supports of a low bench on which the 
piece of alder is placed and the knife is w T orked as on a pivot. 
The cutter grips it with his right hand by a wooden handle at 
right angles to the steel, stooping, and cutting downwards with 
remarkable certainty and rapidity, while he holds and moves 
the clog-block with his left hand. The cuts are made at angles, 
and the block trimmed with an axe, so that it represents very 
roughly the final shape of the clog-sole. The blocks are then 
stacked to dry in bee-hive shaped heaps as high as a man can 
reach, built as peat-ruckles are built with air spaces between 
the blocks. When a truck-load of blocks is ready, it is sent off 
to Lancashire. 

Not a Whole-time Trade, — An employer did not consider 
that pre-war earnings yielded a " living wage " but the men 
are paid by piece-rates and their earnings vary with their skill. 
The clog-block trade is not carried on by itself, for the masters, 
and probably the men too, require some other source of income. 



742 Making of Clogs, Clog-Soles and Clog-Blocks. [Nov., 



For example, a Shropshire employer is a timber merchant and 
keeps a small inn, and an employer in Devonshire is a firewood 
dealer who also has a small wood-turning industry, making brush- 
stocks. The former sends gangs of cutters near and far; the 
latter, as yet in a small way of business, had employed a single 
cutter until others had learnt the art, and is only using wood 
obtained near at hand. 

No evidence has been found in the three counties under inves- 
tigation (Shropshire, Staffordshire and Cheshire) to show that the 
separate trades of the clog-soler who cuts the block to the final 
shape, and the clog-maker who makes and fixes on the uppers, 
are rural industries. The doggers are often cobblers as well and 
they are to be found in the towns. They buy the soles and attach 
uppers which are frequently made from old boots. 

Two very interesting doggers were found in a country town 
in Shropshire, and their business proves that clogging still sur- 
vives as a complete self-contained craft. Of these two, one 
has sons in the trade and the other has not. Material is obtained 
in the neighbourhood, for present railway freights are prohibi- 
tive to a small-scale business. Even on local wood haulage costs 
have been high. One of the doggers, who would like to get 
his supplies close at hand, estimates that £100 a year could be 
made from four and a-half acres of waste land near by if it were 
planted with alder. Some alder can be cleared by thinning every 
five years in such a way that other shoots grow strong, but the 
best material for clogs comes from wood of twenty-five to thirty 
years' growth. The dogger held out his hand, palm upward, 
with the thumb and fingers bent to show how five alder shoots 
should be left to grow out from the stock and then shoot up 
straight and strong. He does not care for older material as 
there is more sawing and cutting to be done to it, and conse- 
quently the costs are higher. 

The son, who cuts the blocks and does a sawing and clearing 
business for fences and firewood, prefers to work in his own shed 
at home and not out in the woods. Therefore the problem of 
waste wood, on which haulage to the yard has been paid, is 
seriously exercising his mind He is thinking of toys and other 
small wooden articles. He does not use the usual block-cutter's 
knife when working at home, but shapes the blocks with his saw, 
which is worked by means of a small engine, after they have been 
cross-sawn and cleft to the right size. He is also considering a 
small portable saw which could be used out in the woods, and is 
interested in engines whose furnaces can utilise chips and saw- 



1922.] Making of Clogs, Clog-Soles and Clog-Blocks. 743 



dust as fuel. All their wood is cleft, the saw only being used 
for cross-sawing and trimming the cleft pieces to- the correct 
shape for clog-blocks. Straightness of grain is important in this 
trade, and cleaving secures this. 

Making the Soles. — The sole-making is done with a tool 
similar to that used for block-cutting. The craftsman seems to 
know by heart the exact curve that is needed for comfort, and 
with very little measurement is able to make the right shapes 
for every size in clogs. Some clog-makers get leather for 
the uppers from the mills; it is strong, thick and supple, 
and impregnated with oil, which makes it soft and weather-proof. 
The leather is in wide strips which have been used to cover 
rollers in the mills. Once it has worn a little thinner in one 
part than in another, it must be removed from the rollers, which 
must be exactly cylindrical ; it can therefore be had cheaper than 
new leather and the thin parts can be cut away. A stretching 
machine is used to shape the leather so as to give the necessary 
spring for the instep , The uppers are made in two pieces only, 
a third piece inside giving strength to the heel. They are sewn 
together with a sewing machine, such as boot-repairers use, and 
when the upper is nailed to the sole, and the irons and fastenings 
are put on, the clog is complete. Some clogs are lined with felt. 

The Outlook. — Cloggers are very scarce, as no boys have 
been learning the trade. There was an abnormal demand during 
the War, when no foreign clogs were coming in, and this appears 
to have stimulated the use of machinery. Demand fell off some- 
what during the latter part of the War, when boots were worn 
owing to higher wages, and the trade appears to be feeling the 
general depression at the present time. 

There is said to be an opening for small clog-making enter- 
prises in the south of England, where clogs are not unknown, 
and might, it is thought, be popularised if light, comfortable 
types were put on the market and the retailers induced to stock 
the irons for replacement when worn out. This lengthens the 
life of the clogs and makes them all the more economical in com- 
parison with boots. The irons and buckles can be procured from 
Lancashire and would probably not be worth making locally, but 
a small clogging firm would have to include a wood-dealer who 
would be responsible for felling the wood and preparing the clog- 
blocks, a skilled clog-sole maker, and a boot-maker or repairer 
who could make and fasten on the leather tops. Such a partner- 
ship would probably be the best means of working up a local 



744 Making of Clogs, Clog-Soles and Clog-Blocks. [Nov., 



" bt spoke " retail trade- with customers who like their foot- 
gear made to measure. A man might have a good chance of 
working up a small local trade, but he could not increase it 
largely without meeting competition from machine-made and 
imported clogs. His success would depend on (1) real superi- 
ority; (2) economies effected by getting local alder made up 
locally, which would otherwise go north as clog-blocks and come 
south again as clogs ; and (3) facilities for getting* suitable leather 
on special terms. It is not thought that clog-sole machinery 
would be worth introducing into a small concern, and there is 
no reason to suppose that a big industry would pay. 

The presence of clog-block cutters in alder-growing districts 
would be a helpful factor in launching small experiments, since 
the cutters or their employers are in touch with other branches 
of the industry. It would not be impossible to provide the essen- 
tial safeguard for men undertaking a new venture ; that is, to 
see that they have some alternative outlet in case of decline or 
failure in the trade. This could be done by connecting the 
industry with wood -dealing and other wood-crafts and perhaps 
also with boot-repairing. The small-scale craftsman can rarely 
afford to be a " one-job " man. Clog-solers are reputed to be 
scarce because during the War they were wanted out in the 
woods -and did not care to settle down again to indoor work. 
Probably their real reason was the competition of machine-madp 
clogs which drove them away from their former occupation. 

There is a tendency for skilled journeymen to move away from 
areas where machinery is displacing their special craft, and to 
set up small businesses in some remote or rural district for a 
market in which competition from the machine-made product is 
not acutely felt- It may or may not be a local market, but it 
is a special market in which their specialised skill, or personal 
qualities, have value. It may. for instance, be a retail trade, in 
an article of distinctive quality, made under conditions in which 
the compensating advantages of personal skill and of any 
economies in getting the small lots of material near at hand, 
balance the advantages of big-scale production and wholesale 
distribution. 



****** 



1922.] Food in Relation to Egg Production. 



745 



FOOD IN RELATION TO EGG 
PRODUCTION. 

E. J. Dayey, 
Harper Adams Agricultural College. 

In the economies of egg production, the relation that feeding 
costs bear to the total cost of production on one hand, and what 
relation the cost of food bears to the value of the output of the 
birds, always excite attention. It has become almost a truism 
to say that feeding costs taking the year through should not 
exceed the price of one egg per week, nevertheless it is difficult 
to find satisfactory data on which such an opinion can be based. 

The soundness of the opinion cannot be doubted, but it 
obviously opens up questions that must be explored in the 
immediate future, if the industry of commercial egg production 
is to be continued successfully. The suggested limit of feeding 
costs depends on two factors, the price of feeding stuffs and the 
price of eggs. Both factors are variable and liable to have their 
relationship materially altered by developments that are already 
making their influence felt. 

Y\ T e have two well-defined schools of thought. On the one 
hand we have those who by reducing production costs, feeding 
of course being part, look for an increased profit on a compara- 
tively low egg-yield per bird, and we have those who are prepared 
to spend more on production and recoup themselves by a higher 
egg-yield. 

So far, no detailed figures seem available showing the cost of 
production per thousand eggs, on a plant running successfully 
with a low average egg production. It follows that if the plant- 
is successful on a low average, production costs must have been 
cut rather heavily to show a profit at all, and the feeding costs 
will have been cut with the others. In the absence, however, 
of records of the system we are bound to approach the question 
of feeding costs from the opposite angle, that is from the point of 
view of comparatively high feeding costs, on a high flock average. 

In passing, however, it might be as well to point out that low 
feeding costs do not necessarily result in a low flock average. 
Our knowledge of food stuffs is incomplete, and it is by no means 
certain that through comparatively high priced grain and milling 
offals lies the only way to feed the necessary food elements to 
laving hens. In more than one case, individual breeders have 
availed themselves of unconventional food due to cheap local 
supplies, without damage either to the birds or their produce. 



746 



Food in Relation to Egg Production. 



[Nov., 



When we approach feeding costs in relation to egg production 
'from the point of view of high flock average, we have the figures 
extending over three years of The Harper Adams College Laying 
Trials, which are summarised on the accompanying diagram. 
Before proceeding to deal with the costs in detail, it might be as 
well to answer one or two criticisms that have been urged against 
them. 

In the first place it is claimed that the feeding cost per bird 
is unduly high. This is not denied, but the point of view from 
which these figures should be approached, must bo that of poultry 
keepers and not the wholesale millers. The prices given month 
by month do not represent so much the actual price paid for the 
food, as the price at which small poultry keepers locally were 
buying the foods used during the same period. The difference 
between the two levels of prices when worked out to cost per 
bird, would only be a fraction of a farthing, bat expressed as 
price per ton is a much more considerable item. 

It has also been stated that the feeding costs are high because 
the foods used were unduly expensive and that cheaper substitutes 
could have been found. The main purpose of the Laying Trials, 
however, is to get the maximum output in a definite period, a 
very different problem to getting the maximum output on the 
minimum cost. To let any outside consideration affect the 
question of immediate output, would be foreign to the purpose 
of the trials. The birds have to demonstrate their ability as 
producers between 1st November and 3rd October of the 
following year, and in fairness to the breeder concerned no ques- 
tion of experiments with feeding ought to be considered. 

The accompanying diagram gives the average feeding cost and 
the average output per bird during the last two years' trials and 
their relation can be seen at a glance. 

This chart of comparative values is interesting as showing that 
there is a relation between feeding costs and the value of e^gs 
produced. A sharp rise in both values is experienced from the 
beginning of November until early in January, after which there 
is a continuous drop until low values are reached in the e°rlv 
spring and summer, and the curves do not recover, until 
November again comes along. 

But this must not be pushed too far. Although this factor 
has become a regular feature since these feeding costs were first 
compiled three years ago, it may be due to the nature of the trials. 
Although the value of food increased during this period, the 
actual weight consumed was normal. It is obvious that the rise 



1922.] Food in Relation to Egg Production. 747 



in egg values is due to scarcity during the winter, and in all 
probability the rise in food values for the corresponding period 
is due more to a personal, than an economic factor. The poultry- 
man in charge of the trial was in all probability feeding heavily 
the more expensive foods, in order to get his output quickly 
up to its maximum, and just to what extent this personal factor 
comes in, it is impossible to say until the conclusions arrived 
at by the study of these figures can be checked by experimental 
work on a commercial basis. But it must be very obvious that 
if, while maintaining the high curve of egg values, the corre- 
sponding curve of food value could be flattened to its summer 
level a very material difference would be made in the profit. 
While a few pence per bird is not a great item taken by itself, 
it becomes so when spread over 740 birds, or as will be the case 
this year, nearly two thousand. 

A study of comparative weights shows that while values are 
related weights are not. The heaviest feeding weight does not 
correspond with the greatest output. 

But interesting as the study of comparative values and weights 
mav be, there is a further aspect of feeding for egg production 
that should not be lost sight of. In the " Feathered Y\ 7 orld 
Year Book " for 1921 the writer called attention to the 
relation that exists between quality of food consumed and the 
actual output of eggs. There can be little question that quality 
of food is closely related to output, and it is interesting to notice 
from the accompanying diagram, that during the years when 
the quality of food was at its worst, the output of eggs per bird 
was also the- lowest registered. The same thing holds true of 
the percentage of second grade eggs to first. The poorer the food 
became the more second grade eggs were recorded, as will be 
seen from the following table : — 
Summary of Second Grade Eggs during four Winter Months. 

1915-10.1916 17 191 7.7,9. 1918-19. 1919-20. 1920-?1. 

1st Grade 66*1 51-8 54 1 7292 77 3 75 69 

2nd Grade 33 9 48 2 15-9 27*08 22-7 24 31 

There is one aspect of feeding costs in it? relation to pro- 
duction that has not yet been deall with. It is a mistake to 
assume that eggs alone represent the output of value from any 
given pen. In the growth of flesh and in the production of 
manure we have two items less by far in value than the eggs, 
but still considerable, to set off against the food and other costs. 
While flesh and manure are usually disregarded in working out 
values it is obvious they should be included. Even at the end of 



748 



A New Apple Pest. 



[Nov., 



a season of heavy laying, some of our dual purpose breeds will 
show an increase in carcass weight, and consequently a higher 
killing price would be obtained. Similarly the manure produced 
if properly stored and used is a most valuable commodity, and 
its value should certainly be credited to the pen performance. 
An ordinary pen, fed as the Harper Adams Laying Trial birds 
are fed, will produce a quarter of a ton of manure per annum 
showing the following approximate analysis : — water 72-6 per 
cent., nitrogen 1-42 per cent., phosphoric acid 201 per cent., 
potash 0'42 per cent. Expressed another way each pen of six 
hens competing at the trials, produces roughly between 7 and 
8 lb. of nitrogen. 10 lb. of phosphoric acid and lb. of potash. 
"When it is remembered that this year the birds may be expected 
to produce nearly one hundred tons of this highly concentrated 
manure, to disregard it in relation to feeding costs appears to 
be a mistake. The unsatisfactory state, in which the storage 
and use of poultry manure is at present, opens up another 
question outside the scope of this paper. 

****** 

A NEW APPLE PEST. 

J. C. F. Fryer, M.A., 
Pathological Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Harpenden. 

A report has recently become current in horticultural circles 
of the appearance in England of a weevil allied to the Apple 
Blossom Weevil but even more destructive in its habits, and it 
may therefore be of interest to Journal readers to give a few 
details with regard to the discovery. 

In the spring of 1921 Mr. F. R. Petherbridge, of Cambridge 
(Adviser to the East Anglian Province) found on the borders of 
Norfolk one or two weevil larvae resembling those of the Apple 
Blossom Weevil, but feeding in the unexpanded leaf or truss buds 
of apple and not in the actual blossom buds themselves. As 
soon as one of these larva?, after pupating, had turned into an 
adult weevil, it was evident that a species different from the 
Blossom Weevil had been obtained. In August of the same 
year Mr. Harwood, when collecting beetles in Kent, obtained 
under bark in company with Apple Blossom Weevils an example 
of the same kind of beetle as had previously been reared by Mr. 
Petherbridge. Both the Kent and Norfolk specimens have since 
been identified as a species of weevil (Anthonomus cinctus, 
Kollar, =A. pyri. Boh.) not previously recorded in Great Britain 
and therefore of course without any English name. 




— x Value of Eggs per bird per month. 

° Value of Food consumed per bird per 

month. 

Fig. 1. — Average Values of Eggs produced and Food consumed. November. 1910, to* 

October. 1921. 



1922.] 



A New Apple Pest. 



749 



This new weevil, which might perhaps be known as Bud 
Weevil to distinguish it from the Blossom Weevil, has been 
familiar on the Continent of Europe for very many years as a 
pest of pears and to a less extent of apples. In France the insect 
is called the Pear Anthonomus and also the Winter Worm. In 
Germany it is known as the Pear Bud Killer or Pear Bud Stinger, 
while there are also records of its doing considerable damage 
both in Russia and Italy. In all cases it would seem to be pears 
which are damaged rather than apples. In comparison with the 
Apple Blossom Weevil, the pest usually appears to be regarded 
as of less, and sometimes as of much less, importance. It is of 
course quite impossible to predict the nature of the losses which 
it may ultimately cause in Great Britain, while it is almost 
equally difficult to judge whether the species is really new to 
our orchards or whether it has persisted for years in small num- 
bers undetected. It is undoubtedly the case that it might easily 
be carried in the egg stage upon nursery stock from the Con- 
tinent, and that nothing short of complete prohibition of the 
entry of such stock could prevent its introduction. On the other 
hand, if it were a recent arrival in England, it is decidedly 
unlikely that it would appear simultaneously in two localities so 
far apart as Kent and Norfolk, and on the whole it is more 
proboble that the insect has been present with us for at all events 
a number of years and that it may .even be native. 

In regard to the life history of the new weevil, it is recorded 
in Germany that eggs are laid in September and October in the 
leaf and fruit buds of pear trees, that the larvae are found in the 
buds from the middle of February and that they pupate at the 
beginning of May. the beetles emerging from 8 to 10 days after- 
wards. It is further stated that the beetles appear to " sleep " 
during the summer and not to reappear until the time for egg- 
laying in the following autumn. Judging by the behaviour of 
specimens which were kindly supplied by Mr. Goude (Horti- 
cultural Instructor for Norfolk), these statements correspond 
fairly well with the habits of the insect in Great Britain, and 
there is every reason to suppose that it will have a similar life 
history here. Mr. Petherbridge, however, is investigating the 
matter and may shortly be able to confirm or correct these notes. 

In the meantime, it is suggested that pear and apple growers 
should be on the look out at the end of winter and early spring 
for buds which have been killed or have failed to expand, and 
if on examination they are found to contain grubs, the Ministry 
would be grateful for full particulars. 



750 



Local Investigation- of Foop of Little Owl 



[Nov., 



A LOCAL INVESTIGATION OF THE 
FOOD OF THE LITTLE OWL. 

Walter E. Collinge, D.Sc, F.L.S., 

Keeper oj the Yorkshire Museum, York. 

On the publication of my report on the food and feeding 
habits of the Little Owl,* I received a letter from Mr. M. 
Portal inquiring if I would like to have specimens of this bird 
from a series of localities in Hampshire from the end of May 
to the middle of July. Mr. Portal was of opinion that the 
critical months were June and July ' ' when one might have 
wished for 50 instead of 22 and 14 specimens for investigation.'" 
Mr. Portal's kind offer was accepted and he thereupon made 
arrangements with the owners and keepers of several estates. 
In all 98 birds have been received from different localities. Of 
these 2 were received in May, 39 in June, and 55 in July. In 
two cases the stomachs were empty, and are therefore not in- 
cluded in these figures. Specimens have been received from 27 
different estates., or an average of 3.63 from each. 

In considering the results obtained it must be borne in mind 
that this is a purely local investigation, and as Dr. Ritchie has 
pointed out,t if we limit the area covered by any one study 
of the food of birds, "the farmer in any particular locality 
begins to see that the statistics of the laboratory have some 
close relation to the facts which force themselves upon his 
notice throughout the year," and he w r ill " begin to put faith 
in the conclusions drawn from necrological surveys." That the 
value of such local investigations is considerable probably no 
one will deny, but the danger is that those who read the results 
of such will jump to the conclusion that these are typical of the 
particular species of wild bird throughout the whole country, 
w r hereas they only indicate the feeding habits of the species 
in a limited area, and such habits are modified or vary accord- 
ing to the particular nature of the locality, i.e., whether, 
agricultural, horticultural, game-breeding, moorland, etc. In 
Hampshire and the surrounding district there is a large 
quantity of game-birds bred. 

Food of the Adult.— Of the total bulk of food consumed by 
these 98 specimens during May, June and July, 91.57 per 

* Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture. Pub., 1922,!). 1022. and March, 
1922, p. 1133. 

f Scottish Xaturalist. 1918. p. 255. 



1922.] Local Investigation of Food of Little Owl. 



cent, consisted of animal matter, and 8.43 per cent, of vege- 
table matter. Of the animal content 57.34 per cent, consisted 
of insects, 20.28 per cent, of earthworms, 7.71 per cent, of 
voles and mice, 2.94 per cent, of wild birds (mostly house- 
sparrows) and 1.78 per cent, of game birds and poultry. 

Wireworms and click beetles constituted 10.10 per cent, 
and cockchafers and their larvae 5.10 per cent, of the insect 
content. The neutral insects consisted in the main of Dung 
Beetles (Geotrupes) and a few small moths. 

Monthly Percentages of the Principal Food Items of the 

Adult Little Oicl. 



Kind.uf Food. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Average 


Seeds of Weeds 




•14 




•05 


Miscellaneous Vegetable Matter 




1615 


9-00 


8-38 


Slugs or Snails 




•12 




04 


Injurious Insects ... 




10*64 


41-27 


17 30 


Beneficial Insects... 




115 


•54 


•56 


Neutral Insects ... 


52-50 


4230 


2363 


3948 


Voles and Mice ... 






14-18 


7-71 


Wild Birds 




7-82 


1-00 


2-94 


Game Birds 




5-25 


09 


1-78 


Earthworms 


47-50 


7-43 


5-91 


20-28 


Miscellaneous Animal Matter ... 




•04 


4-38 


1-48 


Total 


... 1.00-00 


100-00 


100-00 


ino-oo 



If we add these food percentages to those previously obtained 
and take the average we find a general corroboration of the 
nature and quantities of the food even in a local investigation. 



Comparison of the Food Percentages of two Investigations 



and 


.1 ve rages. 








Previous 
Investigation. 


Present 
Investigation. 


Average. 


Seeds of Weed s . . . 


-55 


•05 


•30 


Miscellaneous Vegetable Matter 


5-<>G 


838 


7-17 


Slugs or Snails 


•02 


•04 


•03 


Injurious Insects ... 


30*62 


17-30 


2396 


Beneficial Insects 


■99 


•50 


- 1 1 


Neutral 


17-63 


39-48 


28-56 


Voles and Mice... 


31-05 


7-71 


19-38 


Wild Birds 


4 45 


2-94 


3-70 


Game Birds 


•51 


1-78 


114 


Earthworms 


7-83 


20-28 


1405 


Miscellaneous Animal Matter ... 


•39 


1-48 


•94 


Total 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 



752 



Notes on Manures for November. 



[Nov 



Summary and Conclusion. — The results obtained by this 
further investigation of the stomach contents of 98 birds taken 
in a local area where game birds are very generally reared, 
shows that the bulk of this bird's food during June and July 
consists of neutral and injurious insects, voles and mice, and 
earthworms. In comparison with other food items the amount 
of game birds is infinitesimal. 

As has been previously stated the writer does not contend 
that the Little Owl does not destroy young game birds — it 
is well known that it does — but the actual percentage of this 
kind of food is so small, that, under ordinary circumstances, 
it is negligible. On the other hand it must be borne in mind 
that the bulk of its food is of such a nature, that it must be 
regarded as of great value to the agriculturist. If we were to 
reverse these figures, viz., 17.30 per cent, of injurious insects, 
7.71 per cent, of voles and mice, and 1.78 per cent, of game 
birds so that they were 25.01 per cent, of game birds and 
1.78 of injurious insects, then there might be cause for alarm, 
for it would prove that the Little Owl was not an insect feeder 
or a destrover of voles and mice, but that the bulk of its food 
consisted of game and other birds, but this cannot be stated 
even for the months of June and July, and during the re- 
mainder of the year the nature of the food is such that no 
unprejudiced mind can do other than admit that as a factor 
in the destruction of injurious insects and voles and mice, the 
Little Owl is a most valuable ally. 

In conclusion, the writer wishes to express sincere thanks 
to Mr. M. Portal for the trouble, time and expense he has 
taken, and also to the various land-owners and their keepers 
for their kindness in forwarding specimens. 

****** 



Does Good Farming Pay? — During the past three months 
many farmers must have asked themselves the question whether 
it is worth while to farm well. With prices fallen to the present 
level there must be many who wonder if it would not be better to 
cut down all expenditure and reduce all their outgoings to a 




FOR 



1022.] Notes on Manures for November. 753 



minimum. There is high authority for the dictum that high 
farming is no remedy for low prices. It was Lawes himself in 
1879 (a time when as at present farmers were faced with a crisis 
and when land was going down to grass, labour was being reduced 
and the standard of farming was falling) who impressed upon 
farmers the fact that large dressings of manures do not neces- 
sarily bring in high profits. To enforce this point he quoted the 
results of some of the experiments on the growth of wheat on 
Broadbalk field, Eothamsted. Four plots were set out and 
dressed with artificials, the dressings being as follows : — 





Average per acre 




per annum. 




Dressed corn. 


Strain. 


Wheat every year, 27 years, 1852-78. 


Bushels. 


Cwt. 


Complex mineral manure, alone 


15| 


131 


,, ., ,. and 200 lb. ammonium salts 


... 244 ... 


22| 


„ „ '4001b. „ ,, 


33^ 


33| 


„ „ „ „ 6001b. ,. „ 


36| 


40f 


Barley every year, 6 years, 1852-57. 






Superphosphate alone ... ... 


31| 


16£ 


„ and 200 lb. ammonium salts 


45i 


28| 


„ „ 4001b. 


... 49| 


34 



The complex mineral manure consisted of 3J cwt. superphos- 
phate, 200 lb. sulphate of potash, 100 lb. sulphate of soda and 
100 lb. sulphate of magnesia per acre, or just over 7 cwt. in all. 
The results showed that the 2 cwt. sulphate of ammonia in 
addition to other artificials gave an increased yield of 8| bushels 
per acre, while 4 cwt. sulphate of ammonia gave an increased 
yield of 17 J bushels, but 6 cwt. gave an increase of only 21 
bushels. 

From these figures it is evident that an increase in the total 
artificials from 11 cwt. to 13 cwt. per acre increased the yield of 
grain only by 3J bushels per acre, and was therefore clearly un- 
profitable. Lawes concludes: " Assuming that the application 
of 400 lb. of ammonia-salts was the limit of high farming with 
wheat at 6s. per bushel I cannot see how it could be maintained 
that a further 200 lb., yielding little more than a third as much 
increase as when used in more moderate quantity, should be 
employed because the price of wheat was reduced to 5s. per bushel. 
On the contrary, the conclusion I should draw from the results 
of these experiments is that the application of the 600 lb. of 
ammonia-salts could only be profitable if the price of wheat were 
to rise instead of fall." Everyone would agree with this. 

If any farmer were giving his wheat crop 11 cwt. of artificials 
per acre, including 4 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia, we could 

F 



754 



Notes on Manures for November. 



[Nov., 



quite certainly advise him that he would gain nothing, and 
probably lose, by adding still another 2 cwt. of sulphate of 
ammonia, making 13 cwt. of artificials in all. So far as dressings 
of this size are concerned there is no reason at all to suppose 
that they are profitable. 

No farmer nowadays, however, uses anything like these quan- 
tities of artificials on wheat, not even the 4 cwt. of sulphate of 
ammonia which Lawes spoke of as the possible limit, and there- 
fore the results are not directly applicable to modern practice. 
The experiment tells us nothing at all about the behaviour of 
the wheat crop with smaller dressings such as 1 cwt. or cwt. 
of nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia with or without 1 to 
2 cwt. of superphosphate. Is it worth while using these? It 
is obviously very unsafe to say that because it does not pay to 
give 13 cwt. of artificials to wheat, therefore it does not pay to 
give 1 or 2 cwt. The experiment, in other words, cannot properly 
be quoted in relation to the modern problem. A more applic- 
able experiment is now in hand at "Rothamsted, and while the 
results are not all available those to hand suggest that the old 
conclusion does not apply to dressings of the size ordinarily given 
by farmers. There are also recent experiments on other crops 
that do not agree with this old conclusion. At the Midland Agri- 
cultural College an interesting experiment was made on Arran 
Chief potatoes in 1921. The whole field received 12 tons of farm- 
yard manure per acre, but the various plots received different 
quantities of a mixture of artificials (3 cwt. superphosphate, 
1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia and 1 cwt. sulphate of potash). The 
results were as follows : — 



Plot 


Manuring. 


Yield 
in tons 
per acre. 


Per- 
centage 
Ware. 

■ 


Per- 
centage 
Seed. 


Value of 
Crop at 
£6 per ton, 
Seed and 

Chats 
£2 per ton. 


Cost of extra 
Manure at 
41- cwt. for 
Superphos- 
phate, 15/- 
cwt. Sulph. 
Am?n., 151- 

cwt. Sulphate 
of Potash. 


Profit or 
loss from 
additional 
Di-essing. 




Dung 


Artificials 









£ S. 


d. 




s. 


d. 


£ s. 


d. 


1 


12 tons 


6 cwt. 


11-31 


53-1 


42-3 


46 13 















2 


12 „ 




13-63 


56-9 


39-3 


58 5 








17 





+ 10 15 





3 


12 „ 


10 „ 


14-36 


60-6 


35-7 


63 10 





1 


14 





+ 15 3 





4 


12 „ 


12 „ 


13-19 


61-7 


33-2 


58 18 





2 


11 





+ 9 14 





5 


12 „ 


14 „ 


13-18 


52-9 


41-2 


54 5 





3 


8 





+ 44 





6 


12 „ 


16 „ 


11-34 


58-4 


38-3 


49 3 





4 


5 





- 1 15 






1922.] Notes on Manures for November. 755 



Now it is quite obvious that the heaviest dressing (16 cwt. 
artificials per acre in addition to 12 tons farmyard manure) has 
not paid : nor has 14 cwt. paid as well as 12 cwt. ; but it would 
be quite wrong to argue that therefore a farmer should not use 
artificials at all. As a matter of fact the highest profit is obtained 
not by the lowest dressing but by the 10 cwt. of artificials in 
addition to the dung. A similar resiflt is obtained if the potatoes 
are written at half the cost. The true conclusion is that if it 
pays to grow a crop at all it pays to grow a good one, and a 
farmer should endeavour to find out what is the most advan- 
tageous quantity of fertiliser to use : he will not want to give 
too much, but he may lose if he gives too little. No one can say 
beforehand exactly what this quantity is, and nothing but 
experiment will show it ; but an expert with local knowledge can 
give useful help. 

Grass Land. — In time of financial trouble farmers look to 
grass to tide them over their difficulties and undoubtedly this is 
a safe plan. If, however, grass is to give all the help it can it 
must be properly treated. Fortunately this is not necessarily a 
costly matter, and poor grass can commonly be improved at a 
relatively small expenditure. Grazing land requires first and 
foremost good stocking. Professor Gilchrist has obtained striking 
results from mixed grazing at Cockle Park, the gain in live weight 
of the animals per acre being about doubled when sheep and 
cattle were used instead of sheep alone. He states " sheep graze 
only the fine bottom herbage and reject that of a stemmy charac- 
ter, whereas cattle graze much more evenly and not so closely. 
When a pasture is grazed with horses large areas soon become 
coarse and benty where their droppings are deposited and very 
bare on the parts where they graze. It is of the greatest import- 
ance that a pasture should be grazed closely at least once a year." 

Assuming good grazing, considerable further improvement may 
be obtained by the use of basic slag or mineral phosphates. So 
much has been written about basic slag that it might seem 
superfluous to say more were it not /for the fact that one can 
still find grass land that obviously needs it. Experiments have 
not shown that one kind of slag is invariably better than another, 
but there are a number of cases where high soluble slag has acted 
better than one of low solubility. Numerous experiments are 
being made in the various counties and the results should before 
long be available. Farmers are, however, becoming increasingly 
interested in mineral phosphates owing to their relative cheap- 

f 2 



756 



Notes on Feeding Stuffs for November. 



[Nov., 









19 units 




Phos- 


Price per 


Price per 


per acre 


Cost per 


phate. 

% 


ton\. 


unit. 


in. J 


acre. 


s, d. 


s. d. 


cwt. 


s. d. 


88 . 


. 101 


... 2 8 


... 10 .. 


. 50 8 


22 .. 


. 62 6 


... 2 9 


.. lTA 


. 52 3 


70 .. 


. 125 


... 1 9 


... 5f .. 


. 33 3 


60 .. 


. 115 


... 1 11 


... 6i .. 


. 36 5 


30 .. 


95 


... 3 2 . 


.. 121 .. 


. 60 2 



ness. The following table has been drawn up by Professor 
Gilchrist* : — 

Comparative Costs of some Phosphatic Manures in the 

Spring of 1922. 



Manure. 

Basic slag 
Basic slag- 
Ground American phosphate 
Ground African phosphate 
Superphosphate (soluble) 

Slags and mineral phosphates are both guaranteed to be 80 
per cent, fineness (i.e., passing sieve with 100 meshes to the 
linear inch). Satisfactory results have been obtained by Pro- 
fessor Gilchrist with some of the mineral phosphates especially 
when very finely ground (80 per cent, passing a sieve with 120 
meshes to the linear inch). In one case the result appeared to 
be as good as, if not better than, that produced by high grade 
basic slag. With less fine grinding the results are less 
satisfactorv. 

The question often arises whether lime is needed in addition 
to basic slag. In many cases it is not, but the rule is by no 
means absolute. Dr. J. A. Hanley has found soils in Yorkshire 
which are so sour that basic slag does not act until lime is added, 
but then a remarkable effect is produced. Probably other soils 
of the same character could be found ; where basic slag has not 
given the effect which might have been expected it is worth while 
consulting the county organiser with the view of having the soil 
examined. 

****** 

NOTES ON FEEDING STUFFS FOR 

NOVEMBER. 

E. T. Halnan, M.A., Dip. Agric. (Cantab.), 
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. 

The Use of Home-Grown Feeding Stuffs for Stock Feeding. 

— The prices of home-growm feeding stuffs, usually sold off 
the farm, have now reached the stage when it becomes more 
economical for the farmer to feed his grain crops to stock 
rather than to sell them for human food and purchase cakes 

* Field experiments with Rock Phosphates and Basic Slag were described 
in this Journal for September and October, 1022, and a further article appears 
in this issue, p. 706. 

f Carriage paid to farmers' stations. 

| Containing nearly 2001b. phosphoric acid. 



1922.] Notes on Feeding Stuffs foe November. 757 



and other foods for winter feeding. Notes have already 
appeared in a previous issue of this Journal (September, 1922, 
p. 562) on the use and method of feeding potatoes to stock. 
Several farmers have inquired about the chief points to con- 
sider in feeding grain crops, such as wheat, rye and barley. 
All farmers are sufficiently familiar with the value and use 
of oats to warrant not dealing with them in these notes, but 
it is evident that barley, rye and wheat are somewhat un- 
familiar feeding stuffs from a stock feeder's standpoint. One 
of the first points to note about grain crops is the fact that they 
are all somewhat starchy foods, deficient in digestible protein. 
The nutritive ratio of barley is 1 : 10, and that of rye and 
wheat 1:7. Most farm rations for stock vary from 1 : 4 to 1 : 6, 
1 : 6 being the most common ratio. It becomes necessary 
therefore, in feeding barley, rye or wheat to give in addition 
some nitrogenous supplement, such as fish or meat meal, 
earthnut cake or decorticated cotton cake. 

A possible alternative method of supplying this protein de- 
ficiency is to feed legume hay, such as tare or oat hay, or 
clover hay as the bulky part of the ration. 

One of the chief difficulties met with in feeding grain crops 
is to know how best to use them. Wheat is generally so hard 
that digestive troubles will occur unless it is cracked or broken. 
On the other hand, if it is too finely ground, the meal forms a 
pasty mass in the mouth and the stock find it almost a physical 
impossibility to eat it. Wheat should always therefore be fed 
in a cracked or broken state and should preferably first be 
soaked. 

For pig feeding, barley, wheat and rye are best fed in the 
form of a coarse meal, soaked at least 12 hours before feeding. 

For horses, both wheat and barley can be used in part re- 
placement of oats. Barley may be fed whole, but wheat should 
be cracked. Eye can also be used for horses, and should be 
well soaked before feeding. The writer is aware of a farmer 
whose usual practice is to feed rye alone, well soaked, and his 
horses are kept in very good condition. Clover and vetch hay 
form the bulky part of the ration and the horses are fed on 
green vetches without any concentrated food throughout the 
summer. 

With cows and bullocks, wheat and barley may form from 
one-third to one-half of the concentrated feeding stuffs given 
in the ration. The recommendations given above for horses 
apply equally to milch cows. 



758 Notes on Feeding Stuffs for November. [Nov., 





Price 


Price 


Mammal 
Value 


Cost of 
Food 


Starch 


Price 
per 

Unit, 
Starch 
Equiv. 


Price 
per lb. 
Starch 
Equiv. 


Description. 


per 
Qr. 


per 
Ton. 


per 
Ton. 


Value per 
Ton. 


Equiv. 

per 
10U lb. 




s. 


lb. 


£ 


s. 


£ 


s. 


£ 


s. 




S. 


d. 


Wheat, British 


42/- 


504 


9 


7 





17 


8 


10 


71-6 


2/4 




Barley, British Feeding 


34/- 


400 


9 


10 





16 


8 


14 


71 


2/5 




,, Canadian No. 3 






















Western 


36/- 


400 


10 


2 





16 


9 


6 


71 


2/7 


1*38 


Oats. English White 


29/6 


336 


9 


17 





18 


8 


19 


59-5 


3/0 




., ,, Black &c Grey 


26/6 


336 


8 


17 





18 


7 


19 


59 5 


2/8 


1 -43 


Chilian . 


28/6 


320 


9 


19 





18 


9 


1 


59-5 


3/1 


1 \ ) O 


,, Canadian No. 3 


31/6 


320 


11 








18 


10 


2 


59-5 


3/5 


1 -83 

L (JO 


„ „ No. 2 Feed 


28/9 
28/3 


320 


10 


1 





IS 


9 


3 


59-5 


3/1 


1 -fi5 


,. American 


320 


9 


18 





IS 


9 





59-5 


3/0 


1 *61 


,, Argentine 


29/- 


320 


10 


3 





18 


9 


5 


59-5 


3/2 


1-70 


Maize, Argentine - 


41/9 


480 


9 


15 





15 


!> 





81 


2/3 


1*20 


American - 


37/6 


480 


8 


15 





15 


8 





81 


2/0 


1 -07 

X V 1 


,, South African 


39/- 


480 


9 


2 





15 


8 


7 


81 


2/1 


1-12 


Beans, Rangoon - 


8/- 


112 


8 





1 


16 


6 


4 


67 


1/10 


0-98 


Millers' offals- 






















Bran, British - 


— 


— 


6 





1 


13 


4 


7 


45 


1/11 


1 '03 


Broad Bran 


— 


— 


7 


o 


1 


13 


5 


12 


45 


2/6 


1 "34 


Eine middlings (Im- 






















ported) 


— 


— 


9 





1 


5 


7 


15 


72 


2/2 


1*16 

X X \J 


Coarse midfllinps 






















(British) 


— 


— 


8 


5 


1 


5 


7 





64 


2/2 


1 •! 6 


Pollards ( T in nor tori ^ 


— 


— 


6 


15 


1 


10 


5 


5 


60 


1/9 


-94 


Barley Meal - 


— 


— 


11 








16 


10 


4 


71 


2/10 


1-52 


Maize ,. - - 


— 


— 


9 


15f 





15 


9 





81 


2/3 


1 "20 


,, S. African 


— 


— 


9 


10 





15 


8 


15 


81 


2/2 


1 -16 


Germ Meal - 


— 


— 


9 


5 


1 


2 


8 


3 


85-3 


1/11 

-L/-L 1 


1 -03 


,, Gluten -feed 


— 


— 


9 





1 


10 


7 


10 


75-6 


2/0 


1-07 


Locust Bean Meal 


— 


— 


9 








11 


8 


9 


71-4 


2/4 


1-25 


Bean Meal - 


— 


— 


13 


10 


1 


16 


11 


14 


67 


3/6 


1-87 


Fish „ 


— 


— 


14 





4 


14 


9 


6 


53 


3/6 


1-87 


Linseed - 


— 


— 


19 


10 


1 


15 


17 


15 


119 


3/0 
o/u 


1 61 

X \'L 


,, Cake, English 






















(9°/ oil) 


— 


— 


12 


10 


2 


5 


10 


5 


74 


2/9 


1*47 


Cottonseed Eno-lish 






















(h°l oiB 






7 


15 


2 





5 


15 


42 


2/9 


1 "47 


Efvntian 
f5°/ oiB 




: 












10 










7 


10 


2 





5 


42 


2/7 


1-38 


Coconut Cake (6°/ oil) 
t'alm Kernel Cake 






9 





1 


16 


7 


A 

■± 


73 


2/0 


1*07 






















(6% oil) 






7 


5f 


1 


6 


5 


19 


75 


1/7 


0-85 


,, „ Meal 






























5 


15 


1 


7 


4 


8 


71-3 


1/3 


0-67 


Feeding Treacle - 






4 


12 





12 


4 





51 


1/7 


0-85 


Brewers' grains,dried,ale 






7 


10 


1 


10 


6 





49 


2/5 


1 -29 


„ „ „ porter 






7 





1 


10 


5 


10 


49 


2/3 


1 -20 


,, „ wet, ale 






1 


1 





7 





14 


15 


-/ll 


0-50 


„ ,,wet,portei 









15 





7 





8 


15 


-/6 


0-27 


Malt culms - 






8 


10f 


2 


1 


6 


9 


43 


3/0 


1-61 



I At Liverpool. 



NOTE. — The prices quoted above represent the average prices at which actual wholesale 
transac tions have taken place in London, unless otherwise stated, and refer to the price ex mill or 
store. The prices were current at the end of September and are, as a rule, considerably low- r than 
the prices at local c< untry marl- ets. the difference being due to carriage and dealers' commission. 
Buyers can, however, easily con j are the relative prices of the feeding stuffs on offer at their local 
market by the method of calculation used in these notes. Thus, suppose palm kernel cake is offered 
locally at £10 per ton. Its manurial value is £1 9s per ton. The food value per ton is therefore 
£8 11«. per ton. Dividing this figure by 75, the starch equivalent of palm kernel cake as given in 
the table, the cost per unit of starch equivalent is 2s. 3d. Dividing this again by 22 - 4, the number 
of pounds of starch equivalent in 1 unit, the cost per lb. of starch equivalent is 1"2 Id A similar 
calculation will show the relative cost per lb. of starch equivalent of other feeding stuffs on the same 
local market. From the results of such calculations a buver can determine which feeding stuff gives 
him the best value at the prices quoted on his own market. 



1922.] Poultry Keeping in Gloucestershire. 



759 



In the case of young pigs, the chief point that arises is 
whether it is possible to do without middlings, which prove 
of such value to young pigs at the time of weaning. For such 
a purpose a mixture of oats and wheat, half and half, ground 
to a medium fine meal, might be used to replace middlings in 
the ration. 

****** 

The following note has been communicated by Mr. J. L. 

Whytehead, one of the Ministry's Inspectors : — 

„ . , The County of Gloucester is rapidly 

Recent Advances . *, • 

in Poultr Kee in im P rovm S position as an egg producing 
• • district. The breeds of poultry kept are 

in Gloucestershire. ^1-^1. j * 2 r ^ 

either the light breeds for egg production 

or the dual purpose breeds, and purely table breeds are rarely 
seen. The Ministry's Egg and Day Old Chick Distribution 
Scheme has been in operation in Gloucestershire for several 
seasons and has no doubt helped to show the advantages of keep- 
ing well bred stock. Under the scheme trap-nested stock of the 
utility breeds, of hens and of ducks are obtainable by cottagers, 
small-holders and allotment holders. 

Full advantage has been taken of the instruction in poultry 
keeping provided by the County Agricultural Education Com- 
mittee. During the last two winters evening lectures in 
poultry keeping were given by the Poultry Instructor in widely 
scattered districts, the days being spent in visits of advice. 
Models of trap -nests, dry mash hoppers and drinking fountains, 
made from materials which were practically waste, were ex- 
hibited at every lecture and were often left behind to be copied 
by poultry keepers in the district. At the end of each lecture 
the names and addresses of those who wished to be visited were 
noted. It gradually became known that a whole-time poultry 
instructor was available, and the number of requests for advice, 
for lectures, and for judging at local shows rapidly increased. A 
stand is erected at the more important shows in the county 
showing specimens of good and bad types of laying hens, good 
and bad foods, appliances and samples of medicines, and visitors 
are invited to ask questions. 

One result of the work done during the last two years is that 
about 5,000 more hens are being trap-nested than was the case 
previously. In many villages there are poultry keepers who can 
produce the records of eggs laid by their hens, and in some cases 
by their ducks. Many of these more advanced poultry keepers 
are reaping a good reward. 



760 Poultry Keeping in Gloucestershire. [Nov., 



This autumn a laying test has been started for birds belonging 
to residents in the county of Gloucester only. The necessary 
funds are being obtained by subscription. The start is in a small 
way, but it is hoped that the standard will be high. Fifty pens 
have been arranged for pullets, and ducks are also being 
catered for. 

The importance of poultry keeping by general farmers cannot 
be overlooked; indeed, some of the largest and most successful 
of the poultry farms in the county are the property of general 
farmers who have acquired an expert knowledge of poultry. 

The large poultry farm has come more into evidence in recent 
years, and there are now about a dozen farms in Gloucestershire 
where more than 1,000 head of laying stock are kept, and a large 
number with from 500 to 1,000. There are eight Mammoth 
Incubators in use in the county, nearly all having been erected 
recently. 

Two large egg-collecting depots are in existence at Ciren- 
cester and Nailsworth. At the former over one and a 
quarter million eggs were handled in 1921. The commercial egg 
farmer who sends his eggs direct to the large markets in many 
cases dispatches the consignments by goods train and this prac- 
tice is increasing. It is found that there are fewer breakages 
than when sent by passenger train and the cost is much less. 

Gloucestershire is an important fruit growing county and for 
this reason alone should carry a large stock of poultry. These 
two branches of farming go very well together. Mr. P. M. 
Hinton has kept poultry in some of his orchards near Tewkes- 
bury for over 12 years with noticeably good results. The apple 
trees in these orchards have borne good crops for each of the 
past four years, including the years 1919 and 1920, which were 
generally bad apple years in this district. The growth of new 
wood has been very strong and it has been noticed that the 
young fruit trees on the land under poultry have matured more 
quickly than similar trees on adjoining ground not under poultry. 

The keeping of a large number of birds on these orchards has 
enabled the owner to maintain the trees in first rate condition, 
and a very substantial saving of money has been effected in the 
purchase of manures. A reduction in expenditure on spraying 
has been possible owing to the destruction of fruit pests by the 
birds. For example, the Apple Blossom Weeevil is becoming 
less in evidence each year in those orchards which are stocked 
with poultry. 

****** 




Fig. 1. — The Egg Depot at Cirencester. 




FlG. 2. — A large Laying-House for White Leghorns on a Farm in Gloucestershire. 




Fig. 3. — Orchard at Tewkesbury stocked with Poultry. 



1922.] 



National Rat Week, 1922. 



76] 



The week commencing on Monday, 6th November, 1922, has 
been fixed by the Ministry as " Eat Week." A memorandum 
National Rat containing suggestions as to the action that 

... . - nnn may be taken by them and by the public has 
Week, 1922. , J . , / n T , J , 1 ... 

been issued to all Local Authorities in 

England responsible for the administration of the Rats and 
Mice (Destruction) Act, 1919, and it is hoped that all agricul- 
turists will co-operate in securing the greatest possible destruc- 
tion of these vermin at the time when they are returning to their 
winter quarters. Although an effort of this kind during one 
week is not sufficient to keep down rats and mice, but is only a 
feature in the continuous campaign which a number of local 
authorities are actively carrying on, it should produce good 
results not onlv bv the destruction of a larere number of rats, but 
by calling attention to the enormous waste of foodstuffs caused 
by their depredations, and by reminding the public that it is the 
duty of all occupiers to destroy rats and mice upon their 
premises. 

The following are some simple suggestions for rat destruction : 

Prevention being better than cure, begin by rendering rat-proof as far as 
possible all ricks, barns and granaries. In urban districts see that drains are 
intact. 

To destroy rats proceed as follows : — 

(i) Provided the Local Authority has appointed an officer under the Act, 
consult him, and, if he is authorised, entrust the destruction to him. 

(ii) If you prefer to undertake the destruction yourself, consult a local 
chemist, asking for poisons containing Red Squill or Barium Carbonate. If 
there is absolutely no danger to domestic animals or human beings, one of the 
standardised phosphorus preparations is effective. 

(iii) If you wish to make your own bait, the following recipes will be 
found effective : — 

(a) Barium Carbonate (Commercial) 6 oz. } This will make 1,000 baits 
Meal ... ... ... ... 16 oz. f of 6 grains each, i.e., 

Dripping ... ... ... 4 oz. f pieces as large as a hazel 

Salt ... ... ... ... ^oz.J nut. 

,t\ t> • n \ i. /n • i\ a ^ Mix with fat to a paste and 

(b) Barium Carbonate (Commercial) 4 oz. / , . • • *\. 

v J r,. n , , /T , v J . f lav out m pieces the size 

Biscuit or Oat Meal ... ... 4 oz. V / u i * ■ i 

, v , £ A . i ~ j f or a hazel nut m places 

Oil or Aniseed ... ... 5 drops V , . £ 1 

r ) where rats frequent. 

per cent. \ Thoroughly mix the in- 

(c) Barium Carbonate (Commercial) 20 | gradients. A bait is one 
Fine Castor Sugar ... ... 40 > dessert spoonfull wrap- 
Fine Meal ... ... ... 40 I ped in a twist of tissue 

J paper. 

per cent. 

(d) Squill (Red Powder) 20 ) 

Bread ... ... ... ... 30 (Crumble bread. Mix in- 
Fat ... ... ... ... 30 ( gredients to paste and 

Syrup ... ... ... ... 20 j apply &S m («) an d 

Aniseed... ... ... G drops 



762 



Modern Method of Kat Destruction. 



[Nov., 



Note. — .Reasonable care should be taken when using Barium Carbonate bait 
to prevent domestic animals or poultry obtaining access thereto. 

Gassing Rats. — Sulphur dioxide, applied from a Clayton machine or a 
cylinder, as well as carbon bi-sulphide properly applied, can be used to gas 
rats. Acetylene gas, generated by water dripping on calcium carbide, can 
also be used. 

Traps. — " Six-inch " rabbit traps are more humane than the smaller ones 
generally used. Breakback traps properly set are good. Gins and snares 
catch many rats in a countryside. 

Dogs and Ferrets are useful to clear an area after poisoning, and give good 
sport. 

Mice. — The poisoned baits for destroying rats will also kill mice, but the 

bait should be smaller. Traps are used with greater effect to catch mice than 

rats. Keep pantries and food stores under proper supervision and see that 

the food of birds in cages cannot be got at by mice. 

****** 

Since the introduction of the Rats and Mice (Destruction) Act, 
1919, the Ministry of Agriculture, County Councils, and other 

a tut a mr tii a l° ca * governing bodies have adopted various 
A iw.od,ern ivietnou n , . . ■, . c , i 

„ _ means to right the rat menace 01 the 

01 JtCdit country 
Destruction. mm j- re cent and efficacious method 

is the use of sulphur dioxide gas. The gas is generated within a 
cylindrical vessel by burning sulphur and the sulphur dioxide 
is forced, by means of a fan, to the rat runs through a flexible 
metallic tubing at high pressure. Within four or five minutes 
the rats are suffocated, provided that care has been taken to 
block the exits to prevent bolting. It is well to have two or three 
well-trained dogs stationed near by to kill rats which may bolt 
from holes overlooked. 

The bucks are generally the first to bolt. Does which have a 
litter will remain with their young to the end. A rat that bolts 
after the first minute or so of gassing is usually partly overcome 
and is an easy prey for the dogs. 

By excavation of a portion of the area thus treated, sufficient 
evidence of the efficiency of this method may be obtained; also 
a point worth mentioning is the fact that other rats will be reluc- 
tant to establish themselves in the same place. 

In this manner large rat-infested areas may be thoroughly and 
expeditiously treated. It is applicable on estates, farms, hedge- 
rows, railway embankments and buildings of all kinds. 

It is, however, only by active and determined co-operation 
between occupiers of rat-infested zones and the administrative 
authorities that the rat danger in this country will be controlled 
and will eventually be brought down to a minimum. 

****** 



1922.] 



Hereford Fruit Market. 



763 



The following note has been communicated by Mr. N. B. 
Bagenal, until recently one of the Ministry's Inspectors : — 
Hereford Fruit ^ n ^ nl:eres ^ m o experiment in methods of 
Market : Sale of marketin 8 is bein S carried 0llt this season 
rn t j t i. by the Hereford Fruit Market, which for 
Guaranteed Lots • , , L , ' ^ ~ 

c many years has been controlled by the Cor- 

^ ^ ' poration of that City. The bulk of the fruit 
is marketed in wicker pot-baskets manufactured by the Corpora- 
tion from osiers grown on the Town Sewage Works, and hired 
out to the vendors at 2d. per week. 

During last season, considerable difficulty was experienced at 
the weekly sales, owing to the number of lots being too large for 
displaying in rows under shelter. To meet this difficulty, 
arrangements have this year been made to supply with the pot- 
basket a withy cover, not attached to the pot, but easily attach- 
able. Fruit so packed is stacked on arrival, and one pot from 
each lot is exposed as a sample. By stacking, it is found pos- 
sible to accommodate at least twice as many packages under 
cover as it was when all were exposed. 

To allow of sale by sample, an official label is issued to all 
vendors who use the withy cover. To each pot marketed under 
this system, is attached one of these labels bearing a guarantee 
of variety, grade, and net weight of fruit, filled in and signed 
by the grower, and giving his address. To meet the demands of 
growers for non-returnable packages, the Market Authorities 
supply the British Federation Standard Box (40 lb.) made up, or 
in the flat. These are sold to the vendor at a trifle over cost 
price, and a charge of 5d. is made to the purchaser. It is pro- 
posed to hold three special box sales during the course of the 
season. 

The Market Authorities retain responsibility for all purchased 
lots, until they are delivered, ready packed, to the local repre- 
sentatives of the various railways, whose vans come to the market 
during and after the sale to collect the fruit. In this way the 
purchasers are spared all trouble with regard to the packing and 
despatch of their fruit from the market, and to those who come 
from a distance this is a distinct advantage. 

It is to be noted that the Market Authorities have not 
attempted to enforce the system of sale by sample to the exclu- 
sion of the former method. Fruit is still sold in pots without 
covers or in any reasonable form of package ; but when the 
withy cover is used in conjunction with the pot-basket, then the 
guarantee label must be used also. 



764 



Gulval Fruit Plot. 



[Nov., 



While it must be admitted that the prices obtained for lots 
sold by sample have not, so far, proved highly satisfactory, it 
should be remembered that the system is new to the district, and 
that purchasers are necessarily cautious with any new system 
until it has been thoroughly tried and has passed the test. 

The first object of the change, namely, economy of space under 
shelter, has been attained, and on a wet market day the advan- 
tage thus offered to those whose packages are under cover, is 
particularly noticeable. It is, moreover, generally conceded by 
the purchaser that pot-fruit provided with withy covers travels 
better, and with less risk of pilferage, than when packed in the 
old way. 

Growers who have used the guarantee label under the new 
system have loyally upheld the good traditions of the market, 
and the Authorities have had practically no complaints from the 
purchasers on the score of topping. This being so. there can be 
little doubt that the Hereford Corporation are on sound lines in 
their new undertaking, and if the market slogan of " Good Fruit, 
Fairly and Honestly Packed and Correct to Weight " is generally 
adopted throughout the district, there is every hope that this 
enterprising project will meet with all the success it deserves. 

****** 

Situated on the hills at the back of Penzance there is a 
small plot of land — just two acres in extent — which is known 
Gulval as ^ e ( ^" 1 ^ va ^ Eruit Plot. It has been used 

Fruit Plot ky ^ ne Education Committee of the Corn- 
wall County Council for experimental pur- 
poses since 1898. In the first instance, one half was planted 
with fruit and served to demonstrate that apples and pears 
could be raised in the Penzance district of sufficiently good 
quality to realise top prices in the London markets; the other 
h^lf was used for asparagus and vegetable production on French 
gardening lines. 

The growers in the district (Gulval, Marazion, etc.,) are, 
however, not as interested in fruit growing as in the culture of 
eprly potatoes and broccoli, which must be regarded as the 
principal crops of the Penzance area. The Cornish grower, who 
is unable to produce his potatoes as early as the grower in the 
CMnnel Islands and Isles of Scilly, aims at raising a crop by 
|Uo qppond week in May, and in normal years these are the 
first home-grown potatoes in the market. Earliness is the main 
f .fo,-. nnd only a few T varieties such as Duke of York, May 
Queen, Sharpe's Express and Advance have proved of much 



1922.] 



765 



value. Experiments conducted at G-ulval to test (a) the capacity 
of all the early varieties, and {b) the effect of sprouting the 
tubers in boxes, should provide valuable new information to 
those Cornish growers who have too long followed the same 
system. 

The Penzance area, in virtue of its temperate winter climate, 
is able to mature broccoli in mid-winter when growth in other 
districts has been almost stopped. Yet the district has its 
defects — the winds are strong and bring with them salt sea 
sprays which coat the plants, and only a few varieties, it is 
stated, can withstand this treatment. For very many years the 
variety of broccoli chiefly grown has been the Penzance Early 
— a good, hardy, heavy-cropping variety with coarse heads of 
a yellowish colour. This is not an ideal variety and experiments 
are needed to discover a suitable broccoli possessing a smoother 
curd and better colour and more suited to present markets. It 
is understood that provision has been made at the Gulval plot 
for trials during 1922 of a large number of varieties of broccoli. 
Such experiments should be watched closely by the Cornish 
growers and by broccoli growers in general. 

■?fr 3|f 9(6 3|6 ^ 

The increasing population in the industrial parts of the north 

of England has created a large demand for fresh fruits and 

„ , , . _ .. vegetables, which in the past has been met 
Yorkshire Fruit , ° ' , £ , ^ , , A 

_ ... bv supplies trom the south of England and 

Demonstration / 11 T ^ ~, , 

.. irom overseas. In recent years there has 

Station 

been more planting of fruit on a small scale 
around Hull and York, and the area devoted to vegetables at 
Selby has possibly increased, but in the main little effort has 
been made by growers in Yorkshire to change their methods of 
farming by substituting fruit and vegetables for grass, cereals 
or roots. Culture of this character, which is of an intensive 
nature, requiring skill and detailed attention, could be under- 
taken by many of the small holders recently settled in those 
parts of Yorkshire where the soil is suitable. 

The Yorkshire Council for Agricultural Education, to encourage 
this movement, has decided to establish a few demonstration 
centres throughout the county, the first having been established 
at Osgodby in 1920. A plot of land of 4} acres, originally 
intended for a small holding, has been given over for this purpose, 
on which there have been built a typical small holder's house, a 
shed for tools, packing shed and store-room complete. The land, 
which consists of a poor sandy soil, has been well cultivated and 



766 



Letter to Local Education Authorities. 



[Nov. 



fully planted to top and bush fruit. There is a general slope 
to the south, and a sheltered belt of standard trees of Hessle Pears, 
Merryweather and Farleigh Damsons, and John Downey Crab 
Apples has been planted. These prolific pollen-bearing trees 
should also assist in ensuring a good fertilisation of the quality 
fruit trees proper. The apples chiefly planted are Worcester 
Pearmain, King of the Pippins, Allington Pippin, Cox's Orange 
Pippin, for dessert, and Lane's Prince Albert, Newton Wonder, 
and Bramley Seedling for cooking purposes. Beurre Hardy, 
Pitmaston Duchess, and Williams are the chief varieties of 
pears, and Victoria, Czar, and Early Rivers the principal plums. 
All these trees are propagated on East Mailing standardized 
stocks, and are interplanted with bush fruits of gooseberries and 
currants, between the rows of which there are grown various 
kinds of vegetables. The whole is a typical fruit-growing small 
holding. 

The plot has only been established a short time, and it is 
impossible to predict the results, but it is certain that the plot 
will be of great use to all fruit growers in the county, by demon- 
strating the best stocks suitable for the propagation of fruit trees, 
and the best methods of culture, pruning and care of the trees 
in order to produce fruit of marketable quality. The station 
should afford a stimulus to small holders in the district to engage 
in these methods of cultivation. 

****** 

The following letter has been sent to all Local Education 
Authorities : — 

6th October, 1922. 

Sir, 

Clean Milk Production. 
Milk and Dairies (Amendment) Act, 1922. 

I am directed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to ask you to 
be good enough to bring to the special notice of the Local Education Authority 
for Agricultural Education the question of instruction in clean milk production, 
in view of the passing of the Milk and Dairies (Amendment) Act, 1922. As 
your Authority are aware, the Milk and Dairies (Consolidation) Act, 1915, was 
to have come into operation on 1st September, but in view of the heavy annual 
expenditure involved in its administration, and the state of agriculture at the 
present time, this larger measure has been postponed for a further three years. 
In the meantime the Milk and Dairies Amendment) Act reflects in a measure 
the growing public demand for cleaner milk. 

2. The principal features of this new Act relating to the subject of clean 
milk are as follows : — (1) Local Authorities are empowered — subject to 
appeal — to refuse to register, or to remove from the register, any milk retailer 
if they are satisfied that such action is necessary in the interests of public 



1922.] Letter to Local Education Authorities. 767 



health. (2) As from 1st January, 1923, milk may not be sold as *' Certified," 
" Grade A " or " Pasteurised " except in accordance with a licence granted by 
the Minister of Health or with his authority. The conditions under which 
licences will be issued will be laid down in an Order of the Minister of Health, 
which will provide for certain modifications of the system at present in 
operation for the issue of licences under the Milk Orders. (3) A heavy penalty 
is imposed upon any person who sells the milk of a cow suffering from 
tuberculosis of the udder where it is proved that he knew, or could have 
ascertained by ordinary care, that the cow was suffering from that disease. 

3. Coupled with the public demand for cleaner milk, there is the economic 
fact that cleaner milk leads to greater consumption. In other words, it is in 
the best interests of dairy farmers to send out milk in a clean condition. In 
very many cases, however, the methods by which clean milk can be secured 
are too little realised by farmers, and can only be inculcated by systematic 
instruction and demonstration, which falls within the province of Local 
Education Authorities. 

4. The Ministry realises that many Local Authorities are unwilling to incur 
substantial additional expenditure at the present time. Although, therefore, 
the provision of instruction designed to ensure clean milk is of such direct 
interest to ratepayers that expenditure thereon could be justified even at a time 
of financial stringency, the Ministry does not wish to press for new appoint- 
ments of staff or for courses of lectures involving considerable expense. On 
the other hand, a good deal of valuable work can be done at very little cost, 
and it is from this point of view that the Ministry trusts that the subject will 
receive your Authority's earnest consideration. As examples, reference may 
be made to clean milk competitions and demonstrations. 

5. The initiation of clean milk competitions amongst farmers is a move- 
ment of some promise. The awards are based on a bacteriological and chemical 
examination of the milk and an inspection of the equipment and methods in 
use at the farm. Diplomas are granted to competitors attaining a sufficientlv 
higb standard, and money prizes may be awarded to the milkers. Successful 
competitors have every right to expect, and in some instances have already 
obtained, a higher price for their milk, and the result of the efforts made by 
the others cannot but be beneficial, particularly as a concise report on his own 
conditions of production is sent to each competitor. Competitions of this sort 
have already been held with success in one or two counties, and are contem- 
plated in others. A leaflet issued by the Bucks County Agricultural Com- 
mittee on the subject of the competition held by that Authority is enclosed 
for your information. It will be seen that, apart from the cost of advertising 
and printing, the competition involved the Authority in very little expense, as 
the prizes were offered by manufacturers. 

6. Demonstrations in clean milk production can be undertaken without 
considerable outlay, and afford a productive field for effort. The Ministry's 
technical advisers have recently given much thought to this question, and 
have prepared a memorandum for the guidance of Local Authorities thereon. 
A copy of this memorandum is enclosed, and if, after consideration, your 
Authority wish to proceed with demonstrations of this nature, copies of the 
plans referred to in the memorandum will be supplied by this Department at 
a small charge. 



768 



FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE. 



[Nov., 1922, 



' 7. Several County Education Authorities have already caused their dairy 
instructresses to attend one of the special courses of instruction in clean milk 
production for teachers which have been conducted by the University College, 
Reading. The Ministry is arranging that the College shall repeat these courses, 
so that those teachers who have not at present had an opportunity to attend 
may do so. 

8. I am also to enclose (1) a copy of a Memorandum on " How to Produce 
Clean Milk," which embodies the main points of an article on this subject 
which appeared in the Ministry's Journal in April last, (2) a copy of Leaflet 
No. 151, on "Cleanliness in the Dairy," which the Ministry would like to see 
distributed widely amongst dairy farmers. Further copies of this leaflet can 
be obtained from this Office at the rate of 4/- per hundred. 

I am, &c, 

A. D. Hall. 

****** 

Foot-and-Mouth Disease-— There has been no development arising 
from the outbreak which occurred at Manchester on 24th August last, and the 
restrictions in that district have now been withdrawn. 

On 20th October the existence of disease was confirmed among pigs on 
premises at Harmondsworth, near Yiewsley, Middlesex. The usual restrictions 
were imposed in respect of an area within a radius of approximately 15 miles 
of the infected premises. Owing to the nearness of this outbreak to the Eoyal 
Agriculturel Hall, Islington, where the Dairy Show was in progress, and to the 
fact that some of the animals in the show had been brought from places within 
the prohibited area, the Ministry's veterinary inspectors made an examination 
of all animals at the show, and -were satisfied that none of them showed signs 
of being affected with foot-and-mouth disease. As a precautionary measure, 
however, the Ministry prohibited the movement of any animal from the show 
except by licence of the Ministry. Licences were granted subject to the 
condition that the animals were detained and isolated for 10 days at the place 
of destination. 

Licensing 1 of Stallions under the Horse Breeding* Act, 1918.— 

Stallion owners in England and Wales who intend to travel their horses next 
service season are reminded that applications for the necessary licences under 
the above-mentioned Act may be made as from 1st November. Forms of 
application can be obtained from the Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and 
Fisheries, 10, Whitehall Place, London. S.W.I. 

It should be noted also that licences for the past travelling season only 
remain in force until 31st October, and in accordance with the provisions of 
the Act, should be returned forthwith to the Ministiy. Failure to comply 
with this requirement renders an owner liable, on summary conviction, to a 
fine not exceeding £5. 



Printed under the authority of His Majesty's Stationery Office, 
By Metchim <fc Son, Princes Street, Westminster, S.W. 1. 



THE JOURNAL OP THE MINISTRY OF AGKICULTUKE. ; — Advertisements, is 



The FARMERS' WARDEN" 

for INSURANCE of 

. HORSES and CATTLE. 
STALLIONS, BROOD MARES, 

FOALS. 
EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY. 
FIRE. DRIVERS' ACCIDENTS. 
MOTOR CARS, FARM TRACTORS, 
and GENERAL INDEMNITIES. 

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Manager and Secretary : R. R. WILSON. 



N APTH ALI M 

Eradicates " Club, " "Finger & Toe" Disease, &c. 

DESTROYS k WHITE FLY.' 

A FEW TYPICAL '"TESTIMONIALS. 

"NAPTTHALIWI " FOR WHITE FLY ON TOMATOES. 

The Horticultural College, Swanley, Kent: — 

" We find • NAPTHALIM ' ABSOLUTELY clears Tomato Houses of White Fly.'' 
Mr. G. R. Gwtllt \m, The Acek.s Njrsekies: — 

"I FIND THE ' NAPTHALIM ' MOST EFFECTUAL for White Fly on Tomatoes. It is 
THE VERY KEST THING I HAVE TRIED SO FAR." 
Mr. C. R. H. Werkks, Dukes, Bhadninch, Devon : — 

"I have found ' NAPTHALIM ' MOST EFFICIENT in keeping in check the white fly on 
Tomatoes. I used the 1 NAPTHALIM ' on three consecutive nights, and find THE HOUSES 
COMPLETELY CLEARED OF THE PESTS." 

Note Reduced Prices: — i 

Small Trial Ord^r-:. £ Ton Lot. 1 Ton 2 Tons. 4 Tons. NETT CASH. 

13/6 perCwt. £6-0-0 £10-10-0 £19-10-0 £38-10-0 with order. 

Carriage Paid any English Station. Positively no extras. 

BAGS FREE. 1 cwt. or V\ cwt. at BUYER'S OPTION. IMMED ATE DISPATCH. 

RENED RAY & CO., 3, Old Mills, HounslOW. 




X 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE. — Advertisements. 



BREEDERS' ANNOUNCEMENTS. 



CATTLE. 
SHORTHORNS. 

WKLBBCX HFRD OP PEDIGREE SHORTHORNS, the property of the Duke of Portland, K.G. Young Bulls and Heifera 
for sale, from the best strains. — Apply, Alex. Galbraith, Hunciecroft, Welbeck, Worksop. 



DAIRY SHORTHORNS. 

QUIVERS & SONS, LTD., Histon, Cambs.— Pedi?ree Dairy Shorthorns. Over 100 head, mainly fashionably bred Bates 
Families. Milk recorded daily aud checked by Ministry of Agriculture recorder. Champion Cow, reserve champion Bull, 100 
Guinea Challenge Cup, R.A.S.E., Derby, 1921, etc. Bulls and Bull calves always for sale. 



LINCOLN RED SHORTHORNS. 

SCORER, CHARLES E., BRACKBRIDGE Heath, Ll>JCOL,v.— Lincoln Red Dairy Shorthorns. Prizes won in 1921; 2nd Breed 
Milking Trials, 3rd Open Butter Test (open to all breeds) Royal. Average yield 1907 to 1914,805 galls.; 19'20-21, 821 galls. 
Official records kept Young bulls from proved dairy cows on sale. 

THE STAPLEFORD PARK. HERD. A few young Bulls from Royal Prize Winners always for sale from carefully tested 
milking strains only. Apply C. S. Harvey, Wymondham, Oakham. 



SHEEP. 

SUFFOLKS. 

SHERWOOD, S. R., PLAYFORD, IP8WICU —Registered Flock 105. Holder of Bristol Champion Challenge Cup for Beat Flock 
of the Breed, 1899 and 1919 Hi^hect awards, Carcase Competition, Smithfield Club Show. Large winner at Royal and 
County Shows. Also Breeder of Pedigree Dairy Shorthorns. 



PIGS. 
LARGE WHITE. 

CHI'vERS & SONS. LTD., Histon, Cambs.— Over 1.U00 pigs bred annually. Breeding Stock live out in Large Grass Orchards. 
Stock Boars include Histon Thor. Champion Peterborough and Suffolk 1920, Histon Lion Heart, Champion Royal Norfolk 
1919. Dalmenv Macbeth, 1st Highland and Edinburgh 1920. and own brother to "20-guinea Sow. Young Stock always for Sale. 

COLSTON & BORROWFIELD HERDS OF LARGE WHITE PIGS, the property of R. Millington Knowles, Esq.. The Hall, 
Colston Bassett, Notts. — Numbers and quality equal to pre-war standard — Particulars from AGENT, Estate Office, Colston 
Bassett. Notts. 

GREEN ALL, SIR GILBERT, BART., C.V.O.. Walton Hall, Warrington. The Walton and Worsley Herd of Pedigree 
Lnree White Pigs. Selections of all ages for sale at moderate prices. Apply to the Manager, The Office, Bridge House, Higher- 
Walton, Warrington. Station : Warrington. Trains met by appointment. 

THE WARREN HERD OF PEDIGREE LARGE WHITF. PIGS, the property of H. T. Williams. Esq.— Young Stock of the best 
strains for Sale, including a fine selection of in-pig Gilts. — Apply to Raymond Keer, Warren Borne Farm, Broughton, Chester. 



MIDDLE WHITE. 

OHIVERS, JOHN, Histon, CAMBRIDGE.- Select Herd of Pedipree Middle Whites. Champion Cup for Best Middle White Pig 
at Royal Show. 1919 and 1920 (won outright). Champion Boar, 1st and reserve Champion Sow, Royal Show, Derby, 1921. 
Young Stock always for sale. 

STAPLEFORD HERD OF MTDDLE WHITE PIGS. A few choice gilts and boars Sired by Royal Winners always for sale at 
reasonable prices. C. S. Harvey, Wymondham, Oakham. 



LARGE BLACK. 

PICKWELL HERD, Pedigree Large Blacks. Young stock from best strains at reasonable prices.— Captain Claude W. Hemp, 
Stain bridge Farm, Bolney, Suss-ex. 

NEWHOUSE HERD ot Pedigree Large Black Pigs. Boars and Gilts from best strains.— Robert Fortune, Newhouse, 
Oranleigh, Surrey. 

BIDDINGS HERD PEDIGREE LARGE BLACKS, young stock from best strains always on hand— James HODGSON, Biddings, 
Longtown, Cum. 



POULTRY. 

BOOTHROYD. F— Breeder, Exhibitor and Fxporter of the finest Rhode Island Reds S.C. White Wyandott^s. Light Sussex and 
Magpie Ducks. Breeding Pens, Stock Birds, etc. Prices and all particulars on request. F. Boot u ROY D, Shustoke, 
Coleshill, Warwickshire 

MAJOR. ARTHUR C— Breeder and Exhibitor thirty years. Champion Dark and Silver Grey Dorkings, "England's best 
fowl." Prizes at all Shows, and exported all over the world. Prices moderate. Eggs, Is. each. — ARTHUR C. MAJOR, Ditton, 
Langley. Bucks. 



MISCELLANEOUS ADVERTISEMENTS— (r/zga/? Prepaid). 

Gentleman— Middle agrd with extensive commercial experience— desires active partnership in a promising business 
connect, d with Agriculture in South East Devon. Capital available £1,500 upwards.— Write "TRADER ' c/o YERNOX & SOXS, 
38. Holborn Yiad ct. London. 

All anplications for Advertisements in "The Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture" should be addressed to C. VRBNON & 
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THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE. — Advertisements. 



xi 



BECAUSE 

DRY NEUTRAL 




THE SIX BIG 
ADVANTAGES 

OF 

DRY NEUTRAL 

SULPHATE OF AMMONIA 

1. — It is in fine dry con- 

dition. 

2. — It is free from acid 

(maximum -025%). 

3. — It will keep indefin- 

itely and DOES NOT 
ROT THE BAGS. 

4. — It is sold on a basis 

of 25f% AMMONIA. 

5. — It is free from lumps 

and ready for instant 
use. 

6. — It can be emptied 

direct from bag into 
distributor. 



keeps indefinitely, 
you should take 
advantage of the 
present favourable 
price and make 
sure of supplies by 
ordering NOW. 

Price for Nov./Dec. Delivery : 

£16 13s. 

per ton 

(Basis: 2n§^6 Ammonia 
i ton lots minimum.) 

For supplies apply to your 
usual Manure Merchant. 

Directions' for use and special leaflet 
regarding the Storage of Sulphate of 
Ammonia on the Farm supplied gratis. 

S/Ammonia, 30, Grosvenor Gardens, 
London, S.W.I. 



Sole Agents for Advertisements : 
C. VERNON & SONS, LIMITED, 
38, Holborn Viaduct, London, E.C.I 




am 




xii THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE.— A dvertisements. 

The Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture. 

Net Sale Certificate. 

I hereby certify that the average 
monthly net sales of The Journal 
of the Ministry of Agriculture, all 
editions carrying advertisements, 
after deducting all free vouchers, 
complimentary and advertising 
copies, and all returns, for the half 
year ending 30th September, 1921, 
were 9,687 copies per issue. 

In addition to sales, the average 
number of copies distributed to 
Officials of the Ministry, County 
Inspectors, Agricultural Com- 
mittees, Agricultural Societies, and 
agricultural experts and writers, was 
1,187 monthly, which, while not 
being a sale circulation, is never- 
theless effective and guaranteed. 

(Signed) F. L. C. Floud, 

Secretary and Accounting Officer. 
7th November, 1921. 



Used by Farmers, Gardeners and 
Poultry Keepers. 

" Windolite " is so light, strong and easy to work 
that it supersedes glass for poultry houses, cattle 
sheds and all outbuildings, eliminating risk of 
injury to livestock from broken glass. ^ 

With " Windolite " the gardener can make at 
home, without skilled labour, frames, handlights 
and cloches of any size or shape for the protection of 
plants, fruit and seedlings from cold, wet and pests. 

Consisting of a transparent material reinforced 
with fine wire netting it is unaffected by weather 
conditions, heat or cold. It is flexible, can be cut 
with ordinary scissors and fitted to the lightest 
framework without putty. 

WHEREVER GLASS GETS BROKEN 
USE "WINDOLITE." 

Width .. 28iin. 27£in. 3l£in. 3Siru 39ia. 
Prices per yard .. ill 5, S 6/5 7/2 7/11 

Also stocked in double or triple strengths or in any colour at 
extra cost. Many use s for " Windolite " are demonstrated at 
our showrooms, where we are always glad to see callers. 

If your local dealer does not stock, we will send auy length 
from one yard upwards, carriage paid, on receipt of remittance. 

"WINDOLITE- ADHESIVE SOLUTION 
2 oz. bottles, 1/6, post free. 
C. M. DAVIES & COMPANY (Dept. H), 
178-185, Great Portland Street, London, W.1 

'Phone, Langham 184.9. 



The'Nettin^ 
you will have 
eventually— 




BECAUSE it lies dead flat 
without curves or bulges 
and gives no trouble. 
It is made to stand heavy 
strains too, being of 
fine grade wire, galva- 
nized after manufacture. 

High quality and low price is 
another combination that makes 
"Faultless" the Netting you 
should test NOW. 

Send us particulars of your require- 
ments and we will gladly quote carriage 
paid prices for large or small quantities, 
direct from works. 





TAFF VAi£ IRONWORKS 



H 



STARVED CROPS 

MEAN 

STARVED PROFITS. 

DL.X2VC3E2! THE LAND. 

Feed your land with Lime. Here are six good 
reasons for applying Lime to your soil : — 
(i) If the soil is acid. (2) If sulphate of ammonia or super- 
phosphate are used. (3) If the soil is clay and requires to 
be made more open and friable. (4) If the tilth needs 
improving. (5) If" there is ''Finger and Toe Disease" in 
turnips, or '"Clover Sickness" is met with. (6) If peat 
tends to form or the decomposition of organic matter in the 
soil is incomplete. 

Lime can be applied in various ways, viz : — 
Burnt Linie : 1-2 tons per acre. 
Ground Carbonate of Lime : 2-3 tons per 
acre. 

Lime may be obtained as quick lime, either lump, 
ground or slaked, or in the form of ground chalk, 
i.e., Carbonate of Lime. 

You cannot use too much Carbonate of Lime. It 
is easily assimilated in the soil and easy to handle. 
Make the test without delay. 

Orders executed promptly. 
DELIVERIES MADE BY TRACTOR OR MOTOR DIRECT TO FARMS 
WITHIN 20 MILES OF LIME WORKS. LOW PRICES GIVEN FOR 
HAULAGE. 

Price for GROUND CARBONATE OF LIME 15/- ton loaded in 
bulk F.O.R. COULSDON. 



HALL «§£ GO 

LIME BURNERS. 

Lime Works : Head Office : 

Coulsdon iL.B.S.CRy.) Victoria Wharf, Croydon. 



Phone : Purley 10. 



Phone : Croydon 1104. 
Telegiamtt: "Cement Croydon.' 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE. — Advertisements, xiii 



The "SCOTT "SILO 

OF 

Reinforced Concrete 

IS I'X EQUALLED. 

We do not advertise 
our Silos because 
they are cheap. We 
bring them to your 
notice because they 
are the best iu design 
;ind construction, 
and require no up- 
keep, and because 
they have all the 
qualities of making 
ideal ensilnge. 

Before you decide on 
any kind of bilo, 
you ought to consider 
the question of ser- 
vice or durability, 
along with value. 

These considerations ex- 
plain the pre-eminence 
■■■H of the "Scott "Silo and 
wEK^Bg the number built all 
5SBB^ over Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

SCOTT & SON, 





■ 



JAMES 



(ABERDEEN) LIMITED, 

483-485, Union St., Aberdeen. 



THE "CLAYTON" 




GASSING MACHINE 

for DESTRUCTION' OF RATS, RABBITS, &c 

Producing sulphurous gas of high strength 
without danger to operator or domestic 
animals. 

Unlike Poisons. Virus and Trapping, it 
destroys not only Adult Vermin but also 
the young in the nests. 

Used by — 
Estate Owners, Farmers, &c., &c. 

Full Particulars from — 

CLAYTON FIRE EXTINGUISHING & DISINFECTING CO. LTD. 
22, Craven Street, Strand, London, W.C.2. 

Agents i RBSSICH & Campbell, 118, Queen St., Glasgow. 
(W. 0. DAY, Church House, Lord Street, Liverpool. 



tiMIHMIMIMn 



Certain 
Oestruc- 

Gonsult the t ion to 

well-known T| 
Specialists in the MICE, 
destruction of 
Vermin, 

HALLER LABORATORIES, 

LIMITED, 

Proprietors of preparations for 

the destroying of Vermin, 
(Dept. H), 325, Borough High St., 
London, S.E.I . 





We've got no 
work to do. 



2 



The "2 Minute" 

^ - Harness 
Repairer. 





Making harness repairs with BIFURCATED 
RIVETS is simplicity itself. Whenever a 
strap goes, just ^lip in a rivet and you have 
a strong, neat job. Every carter should carry 
them. 

Bifurcated 
Rivets 



are stocked by most ironmongers. If you 
cannot buy them locally, we will send you a 
good -sized box of assorted sizes for a special 
price of 2/-. 

Bifurcated and Tubular 
Rivet Co., Ltd. 

AYLESBURY BUCKS 



xiv THE JOUENAL OF THE MINISTEY OF AGRICULTURE . — A dvertisemmts . 




The "EC-onom-IC" STEEL SILO 

Is the ONi-Y SILO which is really 

1. AIRTIGHT- Perfect Silage. 

2. FIREPROOF— Ensured Food Supply. 

3. WEATHERPROOF - Cannot Shrink, 

Warp or Crack. 

4. EC-onom-IC AL— Holds more than any 

other the Same Size, and 

5. REMOVABLE-Put up End taken 

down in a week by two men. 

Write for all particulars to— 
THE GEO. H. GASCOIGNE CO. (A.O.), 
3, Central Buildings, Westminster, S.W.I 

'Phone— Vict. 704S. 'Grains -Phyrghen, Phone, London. 
DEFERRED PAYMENTS IP DESIRED. 



NEW BRITISH GOVERNMENT 

HORSE RUGS 




FULL SIZE. Not less than |-dozen 
FULLY LINED. 9/- each free on rail. 
SURCINGI E Sample Rug 11/6 
Al TACHED. Carriage paid. 
These have never been used, are well made 

and finished, and full weight. 

If not wanted for present use they are a good 

Investment for the future. Size can be reduced 

or rugs altered to fit cattle, if required, at 

small additional charge. 

FIRMIN & CO., (Dept. C.) 

Sack and Waterproof Couer Manufacturers, 
Handr'crd Works, 20/21, St. Dunstan's Hill, 

IPSWICH. LONDON, E,C3. 



WIRE 



Gal 



vanised Barbed, 4 points, thick 
set at 23/- per cwt. 

Galvanised Fencing No. 6 and 8 
gauge at 22/- per cwt. 

Galvanised Strand 7 ply X 5 gauge 
at 30/- per cwt. 

All new best quality material in 
I cwt. coils. 

Reductions for large quantities. 



SEYMOUR & CO. (Dept. i) 

127, Gray's Inn Road, London, I.C.I. 

Enquiries solicited. 



Fe rtilisers and Feeding Materials. 

Specially prepared Manures for 
Autumn Wheat, Winter Grass, &c. 



Basir- Slag 
Rone Meals 
Castor Meals 
Rape Meals 
Fish Meals 
Potash Salts 



Ground Sla^ Phosphate 
Superphosphates 
Sulphate of Ammonia 
Nitrate of Soda 
X itrate of Lime 

and other Fe-rtilisers. 
Linseed and Cotton Cakes, Decorticated Cotton 
Cakes and Meals, and other Feeding Articles. 

Clover, Grass and Root Seeds. 

HY. RICHARDSON & COMPY., 

Skeldergate Bridge Works, YORK. 



"The Light of the Future." 

STANLEYS 



400 Candle Power Cheapest & Best. 
|d. per hour. 



1 lamp will illuminate 
a Barnyard 600 ft sq. 
60 Styles to ctoose 
from. Write for 
List. 1 he Lights and 
Heaters that never 
rail. Guaranteed Safe, 
Clean and Econ mieal 
Dept. 83, STANLEYS v 
( Stratford), Ltd. V 
Mail Orders to Carl- 
ton Works, Daubeney 
Rd.. London, K.5. 
Wholesale & Rpair 
Shops, Ceres Works, 
56, Wart^n Rd., London, E.15. 
Exhibition & Demonstration Rooms, 357, Oxford St., 
(1st floor), W.l 





THE JOURNAL OP THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE. — Advertisements. xv 



To Milk Producers. 

We are always Buyers of 

WELL-COOLED 
DAIRIES OF MILK. 

A Plentiful Supply of Churns. 
Regular Payments. 



UNITED DAIRIES (Wholesale) LTD. 

34, Palace Court, Bays water, 

LONDON, W.2. 

Telephone— 4921 Park. 

Telegrams— Dairydom," Notting, London 



A SILD ON EVERY FARM 




I/you want to knoiv all 
about Silos and Silage, 
write fo*- our 20 page 
book, which, will be sent 
post free on mentioning 
this paper. 



is the Farmer's insur- 
ance against shortage 
of food and drought. 
Prepare for next sea- 
son's drought and erect 
one of our 

Creosoted Wood Stave Silos 

The quality and sound 
construction of our Silos 
are the best and cheap- 
est obtainable. The 
advantages in our make 
are : — ■ 

Extra Strong con- 
struction. 

Secure Anchorage. 

Hinged Doors. 

Convenience in Filling 
and Emptying. 

Durability & Stability. 



English Brothers Ltd 



tNCQCPCBATeo GABRIEL , WADE & ENGUSH*T 



W1SBEC H 



A. Stapleton & Sons, Ltd 

MILK & CREAM CONTRACTORS. 



MILK and CREAM 

Supplies available from over 
500 Farms. 

Personal supervision, and no trouble 
spared to give satisfaction. 



In no way connected with any othep 
firm distributing- milk by road in the 
London districts. 



Apply to Chief Offices : — 

BROOKLANDS DAIRIES, 

Stoke Newing'ton, N. 16. 

Telephone— DALSTON 164. 



AUTUMN APPLICATIONS 



OF 




TASH 



give the nest results on Grass 
Land and Winter Cereals. 



" Seeds " and Meadow Hay respond best to 
both Phosphates and Potash. 

Winter Cereals on light land pay for Potash 
dressings before sowing. 



For sound information wid 
literature <>n use of Potash : 

G. A. COWIE, M.A.. B.Sc, A.I.C., 
39, Victoria Street, 
Westminster. S W. 1. 



For prices of all Potash 
Fertilisers : 

F. «. BERK & Co Ltd., 
1, Fenchurch Avenue, B.C. 3. 



xvi THE JOUENAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE. — Advertisements 



THE 

YOR KS H I R E 

INSURANCE COMPANY Limited. 

LIVE-STOCK INSURANCE 

A SPECIALITY. 

SHOW AND TRANSIT RISKS 

PROMPTLY ARRANGED. 



Chief Offices: 

York: ST. HELEN'S SQUARE. 
London: BANK BUILDINGS, PRINCES ST., E.C.2. 

Branches and Agencies throughout the Kingdom. 



THERE IS NO 
CATTLE, SHEEP, 



BETTER FOOD FOR 
PIGS, OR POULTRY 
THAN 



BXOO 

PURE CONCENTRATED 

WHITE FISH MEAL 

Used in proportion of 10% to the ordinary 
feed. 

Tfie Proportions of Albuminoids and Phosphates are con- 
siderably greater and Oil and Salt less than the limits 
prescribed by the Ministry of Agriculture experlt. 

Write for samples and analysis to 

BICOL, Ltd., Hope Street, Grimsby. 



Lancashire, Cheshire, Shropshire & North Wales. 
Messrs. BOULT, SON & MAPLES, 

VALUERS, SURVEYORS, ESTATE AGENTS, AND 
PROPERTY AUCTIONEERS. 
Offices: 5, COOK STREET, LIVERPOOL. 

Telegrams— " Aeres," Liverpool. 
Telephones — 187 Bank — 2 lines. 
Estates, Farms, Residential and Business Properties only. 
Periodical Sales of Property at Liverpool, Chester and Preston. 



IFARMING 



All applications for Advertisements in 

"The Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture" 

should be addressed to 

C. VERNON & SONS, LTD., 

38, Holborn Viaduct, 

London, E.C. 



LEARN BY POST 

TO make farming pay really well. We nave trained 
hundreds to succeed. Why not you ? 

WE have courses of instruction in every branch of 
Mired, Stock, Arable and Dairy Farming, Veterinary 
Science, Farm Accounts, &c. 

ALSO a special course in Land Agency for those going 
in for the management of landed estates. 

THE College has been established 18 years. Send 
postcard for a free prospectus to The Agricultural 
Correspondence College (Sec. N), Eipon. 

FARMING 



WHAT THE DAIRY SHORTHORN ASSOCIATION 
DOES FOR THE DAIRY SHORTHORN BREED. 

It promotes the breeding of Pedigree Dairy Shorthorn Cattle. 

It gives active support in developing their milk production to the fullest capacity, at the same 
time maintaining true Shorthorn character. 

It encourages the development of the Breed, and upholds its claims as the great improver Of 
stock throughout the world. 

AN INNOVATION. 

Registration of Dairy Shorthorn Cows lor admission to Coates's Herd Book. 

In order to cover a wider field, and with the object of breeding up Dairy Stock for admission 
into Coates's Herd Book, the Association publishes a Kegister of appioved Dairy Shorthorn Cows 
with authentic Milk Records. 

Entries are invited. 

YEAR BOOK AND REGISTER. 

The 1919 Year Book contains authentic Milk Records of 1.191 Pedigree Dairy Shorthorn Cows, 
with Photographs of typical animals from leading herds, and a collection of general information 
of special interest to Breeders of Dairy Stock ; also the Second Volume of the Register 
containing 1,299 entries of Southern Dairy Cows and Heifers for ultimate inclusion of their 
progeny in Coates's Herd Book. 

Copies of the Year Book and Register can be obtained from the Secretary, Price 10s. 6d. 

JOIN THE ASSOCIATION. 

All owners of Dairy Ca tie of the Shorthorn type should become Members of the Association 
which .s doing so much tor the general advancement of their interests. 

FULL PARTICULARS ON APPLICATION TO— 

The Secretary, Dairy Shorthorn Association, 



(Dept. 1.) 



16, BEDFORD SQUARE, LONDON, W.C.I 

{Established 1905.) 



THE JOURNAL OP THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE. — Advertisements. 



EPHOS BASIC 
H $5 H J^l A ^ JE 

radio-active phosphatic fertiliser \ 
containing 60 - 65 % Pfwsp/uztes. 

HIGHLY SOLUBLE. 




For grain and roots " EPHOS " will give results 
comparable to superphosphate and basic slag, while 
it excels both in the promotion of leaf and stem. 

"EPHOS " counteracts soil acidity. 

" EPHOS" is particularly well adapted for mixing 

in compound manures. 



CROOKSTON BROS., 

38, Grosvenor Gardens, London, S.W.I. ^ES&SE*"' 1 



\ 



V 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINIST 



100206034 





LUMP OR GROUND. 

To All Cultivators of Land: 



USE 



MINE GROUND LIME 



Specially Finely Ground for Mechanical Distribution. 



GROUND LIME is a FERTILISER, and secures 
HEAVIER CROPS with a MINIMUM of EXPENSE 



GROUND LIME, if applied to the land in quantities of about 10 cwt. or more 
per acre per annum, will produce greatly augmented CROPS, whether of Cereals, 

Clovers, or Leguminous Plants. 

THIS LIME is a SOIL FOOD, an INSECTICIDE, a FUNGICIDE, 
and the BEST REMEDY for " FINGEH-AND-TOE " DISEASE in 

TURNIPS, &c. 

The Works are favourably situated for prompt delivery in 
EASTERN, SOUTH MIDLAND and SOUTHERN COUNTIES. 



For Pricss of 



AGRICULTURAL LIME 



AND 




ROUND 

CARBONATE OF LIM 




Write to 



THE CEMENT MARKETING COMPANY, LIMITED, 

LIME DEPARTMENT, 
8, LLOYDS AVENUE, LONDON, E.C.3. 



Telegraphic Adirett:—" PORTLAND, FEN, LONDON." 
Telephone No .-—5680 AVENUE (Private Exchange).